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Ophthalmology SOH > Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (50):
1

Name 4 types of conjunctivitis

Bacterial
Viral
Chlamydial
Allergic

2

Bacterial conjunctivitis - clinical features

Red eye
Lots of pus
Sticky discharge
Gritty sensation
Vision is unaffected

3

Bacterial conjunctivitis - unilateral or bilateral

Starts unilateral and becomes bilateral

4

Bacterial conjunctivitis - papillae or follicles

Papillae

5

Bacterial conjunctivitis - investigations

Local anaesthetic then take swab from tissue inside fornix

6

Bacterial conjunctivitis - management

Self limiting but topical antibiotics clear it faster

7

Bacterial conjunctivitis - example of topical antibiotics used (and side effects)

Chloramphenical
- patient may develop worsening of symptoms with this treatment. If this occurs then the patient may be allergic to it.

8

Bacterial conjunctivitis - what does chloramphenicol not treat

Pseudomonas aeruuginosa (treat with gentamicin)

9

Chlamydial conjunctivitis - clinical features

Chronic history
Red eye
Painless
May have symptoms of urethritis, vaginitis

10

Chlamydial conjunctivitis - Definition

Chronic unilateral follicular conjunctivitis

11

Chlamydial conjunctivitis - examination

Follicles - looks like rice grains

12

Chlamydial conjunctivitis - management

Usually unresponsive
Topical oxytetracycline

13

Viral conjunctivitis - clinical features

Watery eyes
Pink eyes
Bottom eyelid is affected

14

Viral conjunctivitis - examination

Red velvety appearance of conjunctiva
Follicles (look like rice grains on conjunctiva)

15

Viral conjunctivitis - causes

Adenovirus
Herpes simplex
Herpes zoster

16

Keratitis

Inflammation of the cornea

17

Bacterial keratitis - clinical features

Painful eye
Red eye around limbus
Reduced vision
Hypopyon

18

Bacterial keratitis - examination

Abnormal corneal reflection

19

Bacterial keratitis - investigations

Corneal scrape

20

Bacterial keratitis - management

Hourly drops (day and night)
Ofloxacin
Gentamicin and Cefuroxime (if ofloxacin doesn't work)

21

Hypopyon

Fluid level of pus in the anterior chamber

22

Viral keratitis - example

Herpetic keratitis which causes dendritic ulcer

23

Viral keratitis - clinical features

Very painful
Red eye around limbus
Recurrent - every time pt gets an episode the pain lessens due to reduced corneal sensation
Profuse lacrimation
Vision may be reduced

24

Viral keratitis - dendritic ulcer

Located in the cornea
It is white and thin
Has many branches like a tree

25

Viral keratitis - investigations

Fluroscene dye and then shine blue light

26

Viral keratitis - management

Antivirals eg zovirax (aciclovir)

27

Viral keratitis - which medication do you NOT use and why?

Steroids
- this can result in a geographical ulcer which can burst causing perforation of the cornea

28

Adenovirus keratitis - cause

Usually occurs after a URTI

29

Adenovirus keratitis - clinical features

Small white sub-epithelial infiltrates on the cornea
Bilateral

30

Adenovirus keratitis - management

Self limiting
May give topical antibiotics to prevent secondary infection

31

Fungal keratitis - clinical features

Chronic history
Not really sore

32

Autoimmune keratitis - clinical features

Loss of the peripheral aspect of the cornea

33

Endopathlmitis - definition

Infection of the inside of the eye
Affects the entire globe

34

Endopthalmitis - causative organisms

Often commensals - e.g. staph epidermidis

35

Endopthalmitis - clinical features

Very painful
Decreasing vision
Very red eye

36

Endopthalmitis - investigations

Culture of aqueous humour or vitreous body

37

Endopthalmitis - management

Inject antibiotics into the eye
- amikacin, vancomycin

38

Orbital cellulitis - definition

Infection which affects the skin around the eye

39

Orbital cellulitis - cause

Post sinus surgery
sinus infection
laceration to the eye

40

Orbital cellulitis - clinical features

Redness to the rim of the orbit
Collection of pus within orbit Painful during eye movements
Swollen, tender eyelid
Proptosis
Fever
Mucous dripping out of nose

41

Orbital cellulitis - investigations

CT scan

42

Orbital celulitis - management

Broad spectrum antibiotics

43

Toxoplasma gondii - which type of infection?

Protozoan

44

Toxoplasma gondii - cause

Cats
Raw meat

45

Toxoplasma gondii - examination

Brown area of the retina
White fluffy area of retina is the reactivated organism

46

Toxoplasma gondii - complications

Reactivation

47

Toxacara - which type of infection?

Parasitic

48

Toxacara - cause

Cats, Dogs

49

Toxacara - complications

Formation of granulomas causes irreversible visual loss

50

Dacrocystitis - definition

Due to blockage of the lacrimal canniculi