Anatomy and Histology of the Breast Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and Histology of the Breast Deck (60)
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In what week in fetal development do mammary ridges form?

4th wek


What do mammory rigdes form from?

From epidermis


What hormonal action leads to the formation of fetal breast development

Placenta-induced high levels of oestrogen in foeatal plasma levels


In what week do primary buds form in foetal breast development?

7th week


In what month do secondary buds for in foetal breast development?

4th month


What is the subsequent step in fetal breast development following secondary bud development?

Canalisation- – lactiferous ducts, open onto mammary pit – nipple. Alveolar formation and even milk secretion (witches milk) may occur in new-born infant – prolactin.


What percentage of breast nodules have symptoms of galactorrhea at birth?



Which hormones influence pubertal breast growth

Oestrogen and progesterone


Enlargement of the breasts during puberty is mainly due to...

- fat deposition

- interlobular and intralobular connective tissue

- formation of more ducts by branching


What is gynecomastia?

Breast development in men


What causes gynecomastia?

Increased oestrogen and out of balance testosterone in men


What layer of the chest do the breasts reside?

Subcutaneous layer


What glands are located in the areola??

Sebaceous and sweat


What are the modified sweat glands of milk production (2).

Merocrine glands - protein leaving alveoli

Apocrine glands - lipids leaving alveoli


What paths do the arteries and veins to the breast tissue follow?

Path of the milk ducts


What arteries supply the breasts and what area of the breasts to they supply?

Subclavian artery – internal thoracic (perforating branches) – medial mammary branches.

Axillary artery – lateral thoracic – lateral mammary.

Small branches of the anterior and posterior intercostal.


Describe the venous drainage of the breasts

Most venous drainage is to the axillary vein, and the internal thoracic vein.


Describe the lymphatic system in relation to the breasts.

 Ducts located in the connective tissue surrounding the alveoli.

Lymph drains from the nipple, areola and ducts to a subareolar lymphatic plexus. From there 75% of drainage drains to axillary and supra clavicular lymph nodes (lateral breast), and the parasternal lymph nodes (medial breast).


What percentage of lymph drains from the subareolar lyphatic plexus to the axillary, supraclavicluar lymph nodes and the parasternal lymph nodes?



What is the clinical significance of the lymphatic drainage of the breast

Lymphatic drainage of the breast is important due to its role in metastasis of cancer cells in the breast. Cancer cells typically spread via lymph. Interference of lymphatic drainage by cancer cells can lead to lymphedema.


Which intercostal nerves and braches of these intercostal nerves supply the breasts?

Anterior and lateral branches of the 2nd to 6th intercostal nerves.


What does the autonomic nerves to the breasts control?

- Efelx secretion of prolactin and oxytocin.

Smooth muscle of alveoli = blood flow = engorgement and erection

- Myoepithelial cell contraction = let down reflex.


How many irregular lobes of breached tubuloalveolar glands make up the post-pubertal breast?




What aremammary gland lobules seperated by?

Connective tissue septae (suspensory/Cooper's ligaments) radiating fromthe nipple.


What is the function of th suspensory/Cooper's ligaments of the breasts?

• connect breast to muscle fascia (pec major & ser ant) beneath and dermis above

• provide support

• passage for blood, nerves, lymph

• maintain firm and standing appearance, loosen with age


Where is adundant adipose tissue located in the post-pubertal breast?

Interlobular spaces but much less in the intralobular connective tissue.


All interlobular ducts of each lobe end in one ...

Lactiferous duct opening at the nipple.


Describe the epithlial types of the duct system of the breasts.

Simple cuboidal/columnar = Epithelium starting at alveoli

Two layers cuboidal = lactiferous sinus

Stratified squamous = terminal lactiferous duct


 What is the order of structures in the ductal system of the breast from deep-> superficial?

Alveoli < intralobular duct < interlobular duct < lactiferous duct < sinus


An alveolus of the breast is composed of:


Single layer of secretory (cuboidal/columnar) epithelial cells

Basement membrane

Myoepithelial cells between epthelial cells and basement memebrane.

Lumen of alveolar ducts