When is a pregnancy considered post-term?
After 40 weeks and 10 days
What is the total number of pregnancies a woman has had called?
What is the total number of births after 20 weeks a woman has had called?
What is 'lightening' int terms of pregnancy?
When the baby drops into the pelvis and causes a change in the centre of mass for the mother?
What hormone is responsible for exerting and inhibitory effect on the uterine smooth muscle throughout pregnancy?
What causes uterine excitability in the final weeks of pregnancy?
Increased oestrogen overcoming the inhibitory effects of progesterone on smooth muscle of uterus.
What glands in the fetus are enlarged at the end of pregnancy and why?
Adrenal glands of the fetus are enlarged as the rate of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland of the fetus greatly increases near the end of the pregnancy.
How may the adrenal glands of the fetus induce labour?
Due to the increased stress inflicted upon the fetus from the confined space within the uterus and decreased oxygen supply.
• ACTH = Fetal adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids
• Glucocorticoids act on the placenta to decrease the rate of progesterone secretion and increase oestrogen synthesis
Which hormone stimulates uterine contractions?
What hormone inhibits oxytocin and decreases oxytocin receptors?
What hormone makes the uterus more sensitive to oxytocin and also increases uterine myometrial cells?
What inhibits the oxytocine positive feedback cycle during labour?
How long is the first stage of labour for a primip pregnancy?
How long is the first stage of labour for a multi pregnancy?
What is the machine that monitors external fetal heart rate during labour?
What preceds contractions, promotes hormone response in the release of oxytocin and prostaglandins and is caused by increasing pressure in the amniotic sac?
Spontaneous rupture of membranes, i.e., water breaking
What is released towards the end of pregnancy that weakens membranes and causes them to rupture?
Extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes - degrades collagen and fibrinonectins
What happens to the rate and duration of contractions during second stage labour?
Frequency of contractions decreases while duration of contration increases.
What state is the cervix in in second stage labour?
Fully dilated and incorporated into the lower uterine segment
What occurs to the lower uterine segment during seconds stage labour?
Thins due to expulsive nature of contractions
What defines the period of second stage labour?
Time period from fully dilated cervix to complete birth of newborn
What are landmarks of the true pelvis that a midwife uses?
Brim, cavity and outlet
How many fontanelles does a baby have?
The fetul skull comprises of...
29 irregular flat bones
How many women sustain perineal trauma in birth? (%)
What is the third stage of labour?
Birth of the newborn and expulsion of the complete placenta and membranes.
What is the major risk in the third stage of labour?
What is considered premature parturition
<37 Weeks gestational brith