Midwifery, Birth and Preterm delivery Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Midwifery, Birth and Preterm delivery Deck (29)
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1

When is a pregnancy considered post-term?

After 40 weeks and 10 days

2

What is the total number of pregnancies a woman has had called? 

Gravida

3

What is the total number of births after 20 weeks a woman has had called?

Parity

4

What is 'lightening' int terms of pregnancy?

When the baby drops into the pelvis and causes a change in the centre of mass for the mother?

5

What hormone is responsible for exerting and inhibitory effect on the uterine smooth muscle throughout pregnancy?

Progesterone

6

What causes uterine excitability in the final weeks of pregnancy?

Increased oestrogen overcoming the inhibitory effects of progesterone on smooth muscle of uterus.

7

What glands in the fetus are enlarged at the end of pregnancy and why?

Adrenal glands of the fetus are enlarged as the rate of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland of the fetus greatly increases near the end of the pregnancy.

8

How may the adrenal glands of the fetus induce labour?

Due to the increased stress inflicted upon the fetus from the confined space within the uterus and decreased oxygen supply.

• ACTH = Fetal adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids

• Glucocorticoids act on the placenta to decrease the rate of progesterone secretion and increase oestrogen synthesis

9

Which hormone stimulates uterine contractions?

Oxytocin

10

What hormone inhibits oxytocin and decreases oxytocin receptors?

Progesterone

11

What hormone makes the uterus more sensitive to oxytocin and also increases uterine myometrial cells?

Oestrogen

12

What inhibits the oxytocine positive feedback cycle during labour?

Catecholamines

13

How long is the first stage of labour for a primip pregnancy?

12-14 hours

14

How long is the first stage of labour for a multi pregnancy?

6-10 hours

15

What is the machine that monitors external fetal heart rate during labour?

Cardiotograph

16

What preceds contractions, promotes hormone response in the release of oxytocin and prostaglandins and is caused by increasing pressure in the amniotic sac?

Spontaneous rupture of membranes, i.e., water breaking

17

What is released towards the end of pregnancy that weakens membranes and causes them to rupture?

Extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes - degrades collagen and fibrinonectins

18

What happens to the rate and duration of contractions during second stage labour?

Frequency of contractions decreases while duration of contration increases.

19

What state is the cervix in in second stage labour?

Fully dilated and incorporated into the lower uterine segment

20

What occurs to the lower uterine segment during seconds stage labour?

Thins due to expulsive nature of contractions

21

What defines the period of second stage labour?

Time period from fully dilated cervix to complete birth of newborn

22

What are landmarks of the true pelvis that a midwife uses?

Brim, cavity and outlet

23

How many fontanelles does a baby have?

4

 

24

The fetul skull comprises of...

29 irregular flat bones

25

How many women sustain perineal trauma in birth? (%)

85%

26

What is the third stage of labour?

Birth of the newborn and expulsion of the complete placenta and membranes.

27

What is the major risk in the third stage of labour?

Haemorrhage

28

What is considered premature parturition

<37 Weeks gestational brith

29