What are the 4 zones of the prostate?
Central, Peripheral, Transitional, Periurethral
What percent of the glandular tissue of the prostate is the central zone?
Is the central zone of the prostate at risk of any malignancy or disease? If yes, what?
No, resistant to disease
What % of the glandular tissue of the prostate is the peripheral zone?
Is the peripheral zone of the prostate at risk of any malignancy or disease? If yes, what?
Yes, most susceptible to prostate carcinoma.
What part of the prostate is palpable during a prostate exam?
What percent of the glandular tissue of the prostate is the transitional zone?
Is the transitional zone of the prostate at risk of any malignancy or disease? If yes, what?
Site of prostate benign hyperplasia (PBH), the nodular growth compresses the urethra
What types of glands does the periurethral zone of the prostate contain?
Mucosal and submucosal
Is the periurethral zone of the prostate at risk of any malignancy or disease? If yes, what?
May undergo pathological growth in later stages, also compresses urethra
How many tubuloalveolar glands are in the prostate?
What are the 3 concentric layers of tubuloalveolar glands in the prostate?
Mucosal, Submucosal, peripheral
What types of epithelium are in the prostate gland?
simple columnar / cuboidal / squamous / pseudostratified epithelium
What does the prostate secrete?
secretes clear, alkaline fluid, protecting sperm from vaginal acidity
- citric acid, calcium, prostaglandins, enzymes
- prostate specific antigen (PSA) - diagnostic marker for prostate cancer
- prostate acid phosphatase (PAP) - alternate marker to PSA for Dx cancer
- fibrinolysin- liquefies semen
What percent of semen volume is secreted by the prostate?
How many men over 50 show benign or malignant disease of the prostate?
How many men will develop prostate cancer?
Is imparied function of prostate or prostatectomy life threatening or detriemetal to fertility?
When in a mans life is enlargement of the prostate common?
What are 3 symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia?
Nocturia (need to void at night)
Dysuria (Urination difficult/pain)
Urgency (sudden desire to void)
What are some common treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia?
Androgen reducing compounds (5-alpha reductase inhibitors)
What is the precurson of the prostate in embryology?
Describe the embryological development of the prostate starting at the urogenital sinus.
Urogenital sinus (UGS) is stimulated byt fetal testosteron from the testes
UGS mesenchyme acts on overlying epithelium to stimulate cell proliferation
UGS epithelium forms prostate ductal progenitor, the prostatic buds
Prostatic buds grow into USG mesenchyme
What % of prostatic branching is complete at the neonatal stage of life?
Which hormone may be a potentail growth-inhibitor of the prostate?