Anatomy Exam 2 Lower Extremities Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy Exam 2 Lower Extremities Deck (84):
1

What are the three sites of access for nerves and vessels to pass from the abdomen to the leg

1. Posterior to the Inguinal ligament
2. Obturator Canal
3. Greater Sciatic Foramen

2

What communicates via the posterior ingunal space?

The femoral nerve and vessels from the abdomen to the leg

3

What communicates through the Obturator canal?

The obturator nerve and vessels between the pelvis and the medial part of the thigh.

4

What communicates through the greater sciatic canal?

The sciatic and gluteal nerves and vessels from the pelvic region to the gluteal region

5

What area is innervated by the femoral nerve?

The anterior compartment of the thigh

6

What area is innervated by the obtuator nerve?

The medial compartment of the thigh

7

What area is innervated by the sciatic nerve?

The posterior compartment of the thigh and all compartments of the foot and leg.

8

The great saphenous vein drains what?

The entire leg except the lateral side and the foot

9

Where are the inguinal lymph nodes palpable?

Distal to the inguinal ligament.

10

Attachment and insertion of the Iliotibial tract.

Attaches at the Inguinal ligament and iliac crest. Inserts at the deep fascia of the leg.

11

What attaches to the IT band?

Gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata

12

Muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh which can secondarily flex the hip.

Rectus femoris and sartorious

13

The five muscles of the anterior thigh are innervated by?

The femoral nerve

14

Boundaries of the femoral triangle?

Upper- Inguinal ligament
Lateral- Medial border of the satorius
Medial- Medial border of the adductor longus
Roof- Fascia lata
Floor- Iliopsoas, adductor longus and pectinious

15

Contents of the femoral triangle?

- Femoral vessels
- Femoral nerves
- Deep inguinal lymph nodes

16

What is the adductor canal?

Intramuscular space linking the femoral triangle with the popliteal fossa.

17

Contents of the adductor canal.

- Femoral artery and vein
- Nerve to the vastus medialis
- Saphrenous nerve

18

Roots of the femoral nerve

L2 -L4

19

Branches of the superficial femoral nerve

- Medial and intermediate cutaneous nerves of the thigh
- Nerves to the pectineous and sartorious

20

Branches of the deep femoral nerve

- Nerves to the quadriceps muscles
- Saphrenous nerve

21

Anterior layer of the medial compartment of the thigh.

- Pectineous
- Adductor longus
- Gracilus

22

Intermediate layer of the medial compartment of the thigh

Adductor brevis

23

Posterior layer of the medial compartment of the thigh

- Adductor madnus
- Obtuator externalis

24

Function of the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

All muscles adduct the thigh at the hip

25

Innervation of the medial compartment of the thigh?

All muscles are supplied by the obtuator nerve EXCEPT the pectineous which is supplied by the femoral nerve

26

Blood supply of the medial compartment of the thigh?

From the profundus femoris and some from the branches of the optuator artery and some from the femoral artery

27

Name the gluteus muscles

- Gluteus maximus
- Gluteus medius
- Gluteus minimus

28

Function of the gluteus maximus

Abducts and extends the thigh at the hip

29

Function of the fascia lata

Tenses the iliotibial tract

30

Function of the the gluteus minimus and medius

Abduction and medial rotation of the thigh at the hip

31

If the piriformis muscle becomes inflamed what condition may arise

Sciatica (pain in the buttock and down the back of the leg)

32

Name the short muscles of the buttock

- Piriformis
- Superior and inferior Gamelli
- Obturator internus
- Quadratus femoris

33

What is the function of the short muscles of the buttock?

Laterally rotate the thigh at the hip

34

Name the vessels which comprise the cruciate anastomosis.

- Inferior gluteal artery
- Circumflex femoral arteries
- 1st perforating artery of the profundis femoris

35

Landmark for the cruciate anastomosis

Lower border of the quadratus femoris

36

Name the muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh.

- Biceps femoris
- Semitendious
- Semimembranous

37

Function of the muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh.

- Extension of the thigh at the hip
- Flexion of the knee

38

The sciatic nerve arises from which spinal nerves?

L4- S3

39

What is unique about the point of division of the sciatic nerve?

The point of division can vary among individuals. It can be proximal, within or distal to the popliteal fossa.

40

The sciatic nerve bifurcates into what?

The tibial nerve and the common fibular (peroneal)

41

Which muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve?

Muscles of the posterior thigh and leg

42

Which muscles are innervated by the common fibular nerve?

- Short head of the biceps femoris
- Anterior and lateral compartments of the leg

43

Boarders of the Popliteal fossa

Roof - Investing layer of deep fascia
Superior Walls - Diverging tendons of the hamstrings
Inferior walls - Medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius
Floor - Popliteal surface of the femur, popliteus and capsule of the knee joint

44

Contents of the popliteal fossa

- Popliteal artery and vein
- Tibial and common fibular nerve

45

Superficial muscles of the posterior leg

- Gastrocnemius
- Soleus
- Plantaris

46

Action of the gastrocnemius

Flexion of the leg at the knee

47

Action of the soleus

Forms an aponeurosis with the gastrocnemius (Achilles' tendon) which plantar flexes the foot at the ankle

48

Action of the Plantaris

Flexion of the leg at the knee and plantar flexion of the foot

49

Deep muscles of the posterior leg

- Flexor digitorum longus
- Flexor hallicus longus
- Tibialis posterior

50

Action of the digitorum longus

Flexion of the toes and plantar flexion of the foot. Flexion of the distal phalanx

51

Action of the Flexor hallicus longus

- Flexion of the big to
- Plantar flexion of the foot

52

Action of the tibialis posterior

- Inversion of the foot
- weak flexor plantar flexor

53

What are the arteries of the posterior leg

- The posterior tibial which the fibular branches off from
- At the foot the tibial nerve bifurcates into the medial and lateral plantar nerves

54

Define the plantar aponeurosis

Deep fascia of the sole of the foot covering the superficial muscles

55

Attachments of the plantar aponeurosis

Proximal - medial and lateral calcaneal tuberacles
Anterior- Diverges into 5 digital slips which attach to the fibrous flexor slips and metatarsal plates

56

Superficial muscles of the sole of the foot

- Abductor hallicus
- Flexor digitorum brevis
- Abductor digiti minimi

57

Acton of the flexor digitorum brevis

Proximal flexion of the toes

58

Deep muscles of the sole of the foot

- Flexor hallicus brevis
- Adductor hallicus
- Flexor digiti minimi brevis

59

Function of the plantar interosseous muscles

Adductiom of the tarsals

60

Function of the dorsal interosseous muscles

Abduction of the tarsals

61

Function of the fibularis longus and tibialis posterior tendons

Aiding in support of the medial longitudinal arch

62

Blood supply to the sole of the foot

The tibial artery divides in the flexor retinaculum into the medial and lateral plantar arteries. Both have superficial and deep branches. The deep branches communicate at the deep plantar arch

63

Innervation of the sole of the foot

The tibial nerve bifurcates in the retinaculum to become the lateral and medial plantar nerves

64

The medial end of the dorsal venous arch drains into what?

The great saphenous vein

65

The lateral end of the dorsal venous arch drains into what?

The small saphenous vein

66

Muscles of the anterior portion of the leg and the dorsum of the foot

- Tibialis anterior
- Extensor hallicus longus
- Extensor digitorum longus
- Fibularis tertius

67

Innervation of the muscles of the interior portion of the leg

Deep fibularis nerve

68

What comprises the neurovascular bundle on the anterior of the leg and dorsum of the foot?

- Deep fibular nerve
- Anterior tibial artery
- Vena comiatntes of the anterior tibial artery

69

The anterior tibial artery continues in the foot as what?

The dorsalis pedis artery

70

The dorsalis pedis artery gives rise to what?

The deep arch

71

Muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg and their action

- Fibularis longus and Fibularis Brevis
- Eversion of the foot and weak dorsi felxors

72

Innervation of the muscles of the lateral protion of the leg

Superficial fibular nerve

73

The superior fibular artery is a branch of what?

The anterior tibial artery

74

Name the three ligaments of the hip

- Iliofemoral
- Ischiofemoral
- Pubofemoral

75

Blood supply of the hip

- Obturator artery
- Superior and inferior gluteal arteries
- Medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries

76

Innervation of the hip joint

- Obturator nerve
- Rectus femoris nerve
- Nerve to the quadratus femoris

77

Ligaments of the knee

- ACL
- PCL
- Fibular Collateral Ligament
- Tibial Collateral Ligament
- Meniscofemoral ligament

78

Innervation of the knee

- Femoral
- Obturator
- Sciatic nerve

79

Blood supply of the knee

Genicular anastomosis which is formed by the popliteal, anterior tibial and posterior tibial arteries

80

Ligaments of the ankle joint

- Posterior talofibular ligament
- Medial collateral ligament (Deltoid)
- Lateral Collateral ligament (composed of the anterior and posterior talofibular ligament and the calcaneofibular ligament
- Spring ligament (calcaneonavicular)

81

Blood supply of the ankle

Anterior and posterior tibial arteries

82

Nerve supply of the ankle

Deep tibial and fibular nerves

83

Bones of the medial longitudinal arch

- Calcaneus
- Tallus
- Navicular
- Three cuniforms
- Three medial metatarsals

84

Bones of the lateral longitudinal arch

- Calcaneus
- Cuboid
- Two lateral metatarsals