Flashcards in Anatomy Exam 2 Lower Extremities Deck (84):
What are the three sites of access for nerves and vessels to pass from the abdomen to the leg
1. Posterior to the Inguinal ligament
2. Obturator Canal
3. Greater Sciatic Foramen
What communicates via the posterior ingunal space?
The femoral nerve and vessels from the abdomen to the leg
What communicates through the Obturator canal?
The obturator nerve and vessels between the pelvis and the medial part of the thigh.
What communicates through the greater sciatic canal?
The sciatic and gluteal nerves and vessels from the pelvic region to the gluteal region
What area is innervated by the femoral nerve?
The anterior compartment of the thigh
What area is innervated by the obtuator nerve?
The medial compartment of the thigh
What area is innervated by the sciatic nerve?
The posterior compartment of the thigh and all compartments of the foot and leg.
The great saphenous vein drains what?
The entire leg except the lateral side and the foot
Where are the inguinal lymph nodes palpable?
Distal to the inguinal ligament.
Attachment and insertion of the Iliotibial tract.
Attaches at the Inguinal ligament and iliac crest. Inserts at the deep fascia of the leg.
What attaches to the IT band?
Gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata
Muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh which can secondarily flex the hip.
Rectus femoris and sartorious
The five muscles of the anterior thigh are innervated by?
The femoral nerve
Boundaries of the femoral triangle?
Upper- Inguinal ligament
Lateral- Medial border of the satorius
Medial- Medial border of the adductor longus
Roof- Fascia lata
Floor- Iliopsoas, adductor longus and pectinious
Contents of the femoral triangle?
- Femoral vessels
- Femoral nerves
- Deep inguinal lymph nodes
What is the adductor canal?
Intramuscular space linking the femoral triangle with the popliteal fossa.
Contents of the adductor canal.
- Femoral artery and vein
- Nerve to the vastus medialis
- Saphrenous nerve
Roots of the femoral nerve
Branches of the superficial femoral nerve
- Medial and intermediate cutaneous nerves of the thigh
- Nerves to the pectineous and sartorious
Branches of the deep femoral nerve
- Nerves to the quadriceps muscles
- Saphrenous nerve
Anterior layer of the medial compartment of the thigh.
- Adductor longus
Intermediate layer of the medial compartment of the thigh
Posterior layer of the medial compartment of the thigh
- Adductor madnus
- Obtuator externalis
Function of the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?
All muscles adduct the thigh at the hip
Innervation of the medial compartment of the thigh?
All muscles are supplied by the obtuator nerve EXCEPT the pectineous which is supplied by the femoral nerve
Blood supply of the medial compartment of the thigh?
From the profundus femoris and some from the branches of the optuator artery and some from the femoral artery
Name the gluteus muscles
- Gluteus maximus
- Gluteus medius
- Gluteus minimus
Function of the gluteus maximus
Abducts and extends the thigh at the hip
Function of the fascia lata
Tenses the iliotibial tract
Function of the the gluteus minimus and medius
Abduction and medial rotation of the thigh at the hip
If the piriformis muscle becomes inflamed what condition may arise
Sciatica (pain in the buttock and down the back of the leg)
Name the short muscles of the buttock
- Superior and inferior Gamelli
- Obturator internus
- Quadratus femoris
What is the function of the short muscles of the buttock?
Laterally rotate the thigh at the hip
Name the vessels which comprise the cruciate anastomosis.
- Inferior gluteal artery
- Circumflex femoral arteries
- 1st perforating artery of the profundis femoris
Landmark for the cruciate anastomosis
Lower border of the quadratus femoris
Name the muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh.
- Biceps femoris
Function of the muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh.
- Extension of the thigh at the hip
- Flexion of the knee
The sciatic nerve arises from which spinal nerves?
What is unique about the point of division of the sciatic nerve?
The point of division can vary among individuals. It can be proximal, within or distal to the popliteal fossa.
The sciatic nerve bifurcates into what?
The tibial nerve and the common fibular (peroneal)
Which muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve?
Muscles of the posterior thigh and leg
Which muscles are innervated by the common fibular nerve?
- Short head of the biceps femoris
- Anterior and lateral compartments of the leg
Boarders of the Popliteal fossa
Roof - Investing layer of deep fascia
Superior Walls - Diverging tendons of the hamstrings
Inferior walls - Medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius
Floor - Popliteal surface of the femur, popliteus and capsule of the knee joint
Contents of the popliteal fossa
- Popliteal artery and vein
- Tibial and common fibular nerve
Superficial muscles of the posterior leg
Action of the gastrocnemius
Flexion of the leg at the knee
Action of the soleus
Forms an aponeurosis with the gastrocnemius (Achilles' tendon) which plantar flexes the foot at the ankle
Action of the Plantaris
Flexion of the leg at the knee and plantar flexion of the foot
Deep muscles of the posterior leg
- Flexor digitorum longus
- Flexor hallicus longus
- Tibialis posterior
Action of the digitorum longus
Flexion of the toes and plantar flexion of the foot. Flexion of the distal phalanx
Action of the Flexor hallicus longus
- Flexion of the big to
- Plantar flexion of the foot
Action of the tibialis posterior
- Inversion of the foot
- weak flexor plantar flexor
What are the arteries of the posterior leg
- The posterior tibial which the fibular branches off from
- At the foot the tibial nerve bifurcates into the medial and lateral plantar nerves
Define the plantar aponeurosis
Deep fascia of the sole of the foot covering the superficial muscles
Attachments of the plantar aponeurosis
Proximal - medial and lateral calcaneal tuberacles
Anterior- Diverges into 5 digital slips which attach to the fibrous flexor slips and metatarsal plates
Superficial muscles of the sole of the foot
- Abductor hallicus
- Flexor digitorum brevis
- Abductor digiti minimi
Acton of the flexor digitorum brevis
Proximal flexion of the toes
Deep muscles of the sole of the foot
- Flexor hallicus brevis
- Adductor hallicus
- Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Function of the plantar interosseous muscles
Adductiom of the tarsals
Function of the dorsal interosseous muscles
Abduction of the tarsals
Function of the fibularis longus and tibialis posterior tendons
Aiding in support of the medial longitudinal arch
Blood supply to the sole of the foot
The tibial artery divides in the flexor retinaculum into the medial and lateral plantar arteries. Both have superficial and deep branches. The deep branches communicate at the deep plantar arch
Innervation of the sole of the foot
The tibial nerve bifurcates in the retinaculum to become the lateral and medial plantar nerves
The medial end of the dorsal venous arch drains into what?
The great saphenous vein
The lateral end of the dorsal venous arch drains into what?
The small saphenous vein
Muscles of the anterior portion of the leg and the dorsum of the foot
- Tibialis anterior
- Extensor hallicus longus
- Extensor digitorum longus
- Fibularis tertius
Innervation of the muscles of the interior portion of the leg
Deep fibularis nerve
What comprises the neurovascular bundle on the anterior of the leg and dorsum of the foot?
- Deep fibular nerve
- Anterior tibial artery
- Vena comiatntes of the anterior tibial artery
The anterior tibial artery continues in the foot as what?
The dorsalis pedis artery
The dorsalis pedis artery gives rise to what?
The deep arch
Muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg and their action
- Fibularis longus and Fibularis Brevis
- Eversion of the foot and weak dorsi felxors
Innervation of the muscles of the lateral protion of the leg
Superficial fibular nerve
The superior fibular artery is a branch of what?
The anterior tibial artery
Name the three ligaments of the hip
Blood supply of the hip
- Obturator artery
- Superior and inferior gluteal arteries
- Medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries
Innervation of the hip joint
- Obturator nerve
- Rectus femoris nerve
- Nerve to the quadratus femoris
Ligaments of the knee
- Fibular Collateral Ligament
- Tibial Collateral Ligament
- Meniscofemoral ligament
Innervation of the knee
- Sciatic nerve
Blood supply of the knee
Genicular anastomosis which is formed by the popliteal, anterior tibial and posterior tibial arteries
Ligaments of the ankle joint
- Posterior talofibular ligament
- Medial collateral ligament (Deltoid)
- Lateral Collateral ligament (composed of the anterior and posterior talofibular ligament and the calcaneofibular ligament
- Spring ligament (calcaneonavicular)
Blood supply of the ankle
Anterior and posterior tibial arteries
Nerve supply of the ankle
Deep tibial and fibular nerves
Bones of the medial longitudinal arch
- Three cuniforms
- Three medial metatarsals