Anatomy Exam 2 Upper extemities Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy Exam 2 Upper extemities Deck (108):
1

Define Axilla

The area between the chest wall and the proximal upper arm

2

Define the course of the left subclavian artery

Arises from the aortic arch and is continuous with the Axillary artery

3

Course of the Right Subclavian artery

Arises from the brachiocephalic trunk and is continuous with the R axillary artery

4

Brachial artery bifurcates into ?

Radial and Ulnar

5

Define vena comitantes

Vins which lie beside and aretery, usually found in pairs. The arterial pulsations aid in venous return

6

Superficial veins of the arm

- Cephalic
- Basilic
- Median Cubital

7

Deep veins of the arm

- Axillary
- Subclavian
- Brachial
- Vena Comitantes

8

Course of the cephalic vein

Lateral aspect of the arm. Drains into the Axillary vein (at the shoulder)

9

Course of the Basilic Vein

Medial aspect of the arm. Drains into the brachial vain (midshaft of the humerus)

10

the Course of Median Cubital vein

Communication between the cephalic and basilica veins

11

Course of the axillary vein

Begins at the inferior border of the teres major and drains into the subclavian vein

12

course of the Subclavian vein

Arises from the Axillary vein. Drains into the brachiocephalic vein

13

Course of the Brachial Vein

Arises from the radial and ulnar veins (venae comitantes). Drains into the Axillary Vein

14

Course of the venae comitantes

Deep Radial and Ulnar veins which drain into the Brachial Vein.

15

Axillary nerve site of vulnerability

Neck of the humerus

16

Radial nerve site of vulnerability

Midshaft of the humerus

17

Ulnar nerve site of vulnerability

Medial epicondyle

18

Proximal Attachments of the Deltoid muscle

- Clavicle
- Acromion
- Spine of scapula

19

Distal attachments of the Deltoid

- Deltoid tuberosity

20

Action of the deltoid muscle

- Primary abductor of the arm at the shoulder joint
- Flexion and extension of the arm

21

Nerve supply of the deltoid muscle

Axillary nerve (C5-C6)

22

Course of the axillary nerve

-Travels through the quadrangular space
-Accompanies posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein

23

Function of the axillary nerve

Motor innervation to deltoid and teres minor (rotator cuff muscle), sensory innervation to shoulder joint and skin overlying deltoid

24

Implications of damage to the axillary nerve

weak arm and shoulder abduction, impaired sensations, shoulder contour loss

25

Base of the Axilla

- Axillary fascia
- Skin of the armpit

26

Apex of the Axilla

- Clavicle
- 1st Rib
- Superior part of the scapula

27

Anterior wall of the Axilla

- Clavipectoral fascia
- Pectoralis major and minor

28

Posterior wall of the axilla

- Triceps (long head)
- Teres major
- Subscapularis
- Latissimus dorsi

29

Medial wall of the axilla

- Serratus anterior
- Intercostal
- Upper rib cage

30

Lateral wall of the axilla

Humerus (intertubercular sulcus)

31

Contents of the axilla

- Axillary artery and vein
- Axillary lymph nodes
- Portions of the brachial plexus
- Biceps and corachobrachialis muscles
- Fascia

32

Roots of the brachial plexus

C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1

33

Trunks of the brachial plexus

- Superior
- Middle
- Inferior

34

Divisions of the brachial plexus

- Anterior
- Posterior

35

Cords of the Brachial plexus

- Lateral
* Lateral Pectoral
- Posterior
* A, B and C
- Medial
* Medial Pectoral
* Medial Cutaneous (Brachial)
* Medial Cutaneous (antibrachial)

36

Branches of the Brachial Plexus

- Musculocutaneous
- Median
* Lateral head
* Median head
- Axillary
- Radial
- Ulnar

37

Name the axillary lymph nodes

- Apical (subclavian)
- Central
- Lateral (brachial)
- Posterior (subclavian)
- Anterior (Pectoral)

38

Drainage of the Central axillary lymphnodes

Receive lymph from other groups

39

Drainage of the ]Anterior (subclavian) lymph nodes

Drain breast and anterior trunk

40

Drainage of the posterior (subclavian) lymph nodes

Drain upper back, neck and shoulder

41

Drainage of the lateral (brachial) lymph nodes

Receive most of the upper limb drainage

42

Muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm

- Biceps brachii
- Coracobrachialis
- Brachialis

43

Vessels of the anterior compartment of the arm

- Brachial artery and its venae comitantes

44

Nerves of the anterior compartment of the arm

- Medians
- Ulnar
- Musculocutaneous

45

Lateral boundary of the cubital fossa

Brachioradialis

46

Medial boundary of the cubital fossa

Pronator teres

47

Proximal boundary of the cubital fossa

Imaginary line between the humeral epicondyles

48

Floor of the cubital fossa

Supinator muscle and brachialis muscle

49

Roof of the cubital fossa

Deep fascia, aponeurosis of biceps

50

Contents of the cubital fossa

- Median Nerve
- Brachial Nerve
- Biceps Tendon
- Radial Nerve

51

Superficial muscle group of the forearm

- Pronator teres
- flexor carpi radialis
- Palmaris longus
- Flexor carpi ulnaris
- Flexor digitorum superficialis

52

Proximal attachment of the superficial muscle group of the anterior forearm

Medial epicondyle

53

Innervation of the superficial muscle group of the anterior forearm

- All innervated by the median nerve
- **except the flexor carpi ulnaris (ulnar nerve)

54

Action of the superficial muscle group of the anterior forearm

Weak flexors of the elbow joint and movements of the wrist and hand

55

Deep muscles of the anterior forearm

- Flexor digitorum profundus
- Flexor policic longus
- Pronator Quadratus

56

Innervation of the deep muscle group of the anterior forearm

Anterior osseous nerve except the medial part of the frlxor digitorum profundus (Ulnar nerve)

57

Arteries of the anterior forearm

- Ulnar artery
- Radial artery

58

Nerves of the anterior forearm

- Median nerve
- Radial Nerve
- Ulnar Nerve

59

Proximal row of the carpal bones

- Scaphoid
- Lunate
- Triquetrum
- Pisiform

60

Distal row of the carpal bones

- Trapezium
- Trapezoid
- Capitate
- Hamate

61

Flexor tendons of the hand

- Flexor pollicis longus
- Flexor dig profundus
- Flexor dig superficialis

62

Thenar muscles of the hand

- Abductor pollicis brevis
- Flexor pollicis brevis
- Opponens Pollicis

63

Hypothenar muscles of the hand

- Abductor digiti minini
- Flexor digiti minimi
- Opponens digiti minimi

64

Arterial supply of the hand

- superficial palmar arch (derived from the ulnar artery)
- Deep palmar arch (derived from the radial artery)

65

Venous drainage of the hand

Blood from fingers and palms drain into superficial veins on dorsum of hand, then entering the cephalic or basilic veins

66

Nerve supply of the hand

Ulnar and Median nerves

67

Muscles that attach the arm to the trunk

- Trapezius
- Levator scapulae
- Rhomboids
- Latissimus dorsi

68

Fibers of the trapezius and function

- Upper fibers = lateral flexion of the neck
- Middle fibers = scapular retraction
- Lowe fibers = scapular depression
- Upper and lower = scapular rotation (glenoid fossa turns superiorly allowing full abduction of the arm)

69

Innervation of the trapezius

- Accessory nerve (CN XII)

70

Levator scapulae, rhomboid major and minor function

- Scapular elevation
- assist scapular rotation during arm adduction

71

Levator scapulae innervation

- dorsal scapular nerve (C5 brachial plexus)
- C3 and C4 (Cervical plexus)

72

Rhomboids major and minor innervation

Dorsal scapular nerve (C5 brachial plexus)

73

Latissimus dorsi function

- Adducts, extends and extends arm
- assists in scapular rotation and retraction

74

Innervation of Latissimus dorsi

Thoracodorsal nerve

75

Arterial supply of latissimus dorsi

Thoracodorsal artery

76

Muscles of the rotator cuff

- Subscapularis
- Supraspinatus
- Infraspinatus
- Teres major

77

Function of the rotator cuff

Assist in joint stabilization and holds humeral head firmly to glenoid fossa

78

Proximal attachment of the subscapularis muscle

Costal surface of the scapula

79

Distal attachment of the subscapularis muscle

Lesser tubercule

80

Action of the subscapularis muscle

Medial rotation of the arm at the shoulder

81

Proximal attachment of the supraspinatus muscle

Supraspinatus fossa

82

Distal attachment of the supraspinatus muscle

Greater tubercle

83

Action of the supraspinatus mescle

Initiates abduction

84

Proximal attachment of the infraspinatus muscle

Infraspinatus fossa

85

Distal attachment of the Infraspinatus

Greater tubercle

86

Action of the infraspinatus muscle

Lateral rotation of the arm at the shoulder

87

Proximal attachment of the teres minor

Posterior scapulae surface

88

Distal attachment of the teres minor

Greater tubercle of the humerus

89

Action of the Teres minor

Lateral rotation of the arm

90

Proximal Attachment of the triceps brachii

- Infraglenoid tubercule (long head)
- Posterior shaft of humerus (lateral head)
- IM septa on shaft of humerus (medial head)

91

Distal attachment of the triceps brachii

Olecranon process

92

Action of the triceps brachii

- Extend the arm at the shoulder
- Long head crosses shoulder jount (aids in stability)

93

Superficial muscles of the posterior forearm and innervation

Innervated by posterior interosseouls branch of radial nerve
- Extensor Radialis brevis
- Extensor digitorum
- Extensor digiti minimi
- Extensor carpi ulnar
Innervated by Radial Nerve
- Brachioradials
- Extensor carpi radialis longus

94

Function of Extensor carpi radialis brevis

Extensor and abductor of the hand

95

Function of Extensor digitorum

Four fingers, extensor of hand

96

Function of extensor digiti minimi

Fifth digit

97

Function of extensor carpi ulnar

Extensor and adductor of hand at the wrist

98

Deep muscles of the posterior forearm

- Extensor indicis
- Extensor pollicis longus
- Extensor pollicis brevis
- Abductor pollicis longus

99

Branches of the radial nerve

- Axillary nerve
- Posterior interosseous nerve
- Superficial Branch
- Digital branches

100

The musculocutaneous nerve turns into which nerve

Lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm

101

Branches of the median nerve

- Anterior interosseous
- Recurrent branch (in the hand)

102

Muscles innervated by the musculocutaneous

- Biceps Brachii
- Coracobrachialis
- Brachialis

103

Muscles innervated by the median nerve

- Pronator teres
- Flexor carpi radialis
- Palmaris longus
- Flexor digitorum superficialis

104

Muscles innervated by the ulnar nerve

- Flexor carpi ulnaris
- Medial part of the flexor digitorum profundus

105

Muscles innervated by the anterior interosseous

- Lateral part of the flexor digitorum profundus
- Flexor policis longus
- Pronator quadratus

106

Muscles innervated by the Radial nerve

- Triceps Brachii
- Brachioradialis
- Extensor carpi radialis longus

107

Muscles innervated by the posterior interosseous nerve

- Extensor digitorum
- Extensor digiti minimi
- Extensor carpi ulnaris
- Abductor policis brevis
- Extensor policis brevis
- Extensor policis longus
- Extensor indices

108

Musces innervated by the deep branch of the radial nerve

- Extensor carpi radialis brevis