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Flashcards in Patho Chap 1 Deck (73):
1

Prokaryote

Larger cells with organelles and a nucleus

2

Eukaryote

Smaller, simpler cells without organelles or a nucleus

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Ribosomes

RNA-protein complexes synthesized in the nucleolus. Main function is to provide sites for cellular protein synthesis

4

Rough ER

Contains ribosomes. Responsible for much of the cells protein synthesis and folding

5

Smooth ER

No ribosomes. Involved with steroid synthesis required to remove toxins from the cell

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Golgi Apparatus

Processing and packaging of proteins from ER for transport

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Lysosomes

Intracellular digestive enzymes produced in the Golgi Complex.

8

Primary Lysosomes

Merge with vacuoles

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Secondary Lysosomes

Pump H+ into interior to maintain acidic pH, activate hydrolytic enzymes

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Peroxisomes

Membrane bound organelles that contain oxidative enzymes. Detoxify waste and degrade long-chain fatty acids.

11

Mitochondria

Organells responsible for cellular respiration and energy production. Catabolism- releases energy from large molecule breakdown. Anabolism- uses energy to synthesize glycogen, proteins and lipids

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Vaults

Octagonal organells thought to act simmilarly to ribosomes in transporting RNA

13

Glycolosis

Splitting of glucose. Produces a net of 2 moulecules of ATP per Glucose melecule split through Oxidation

14

Oxidative Phosphorilization DEF

Occurs in the mitochondrion. Is the mechanism by which energy from carbs, fats and proteins is transferred into ATP

15

Cori Cycle

lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is metabolized back to lactate

16

Cytoskeleton

ovement.Maintains cell shape and org. Permits

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Microtubules

Provide strength, involved in cellular division, faclitate conduction of AP's

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Plasma Membrane

controls composition of the compartment, allows lipid-soluble molecules to diffuse through the membrane, provides structural integrity

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3 methods of Chemical Signaling

1. Form Gap Junctions

2. Display plasma membrane-bound signaling receptors

3. Secrete chemicals that signal cells

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Hormonal Signaling

Hormones travel to target cell through blood or lymph

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Neurohormonal signaling

Hormones released into the blood by neurosecretory neurons

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Paracrine Signaling

Chemical mediators secreted, act on near-by cells

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Autocrine Signaling

Signaling molecules act back on the cell origin

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Extracellular messengers

Convey instructions to the cell's interior (transfer, amplify, distribute and modulate)

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First Messenger

Ligand bonds to receptor on the plasma membrane

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emical deformation of the channel

1. Binding of ligand to membrane receptor, 2. Changes in electrical current in plasma membrane, 3.

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Second Messengers

FM binds to receptors, -->triggers production of 2nd messenger --> Uses G Protein (could also be cAMP or Ca2+)

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Cellular Respiration Phase 1

Digestion

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Cellular Respiration Phase 2

(anerobic) Glycolosis --> pyruvic acid (pyruvate)

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Cellular Respiration Phase 3

1. (aerobic) Citric Acid Cycle -->NADH and FADH2 2. Oxidative Phosphorilization --> ATP and H20

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Glycolosis Pathway

Glucose + 2 NAD + 2 APD + Pi --> 2 pyruvic acid + 2 NADH and 2 ATP

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Krebs Cycle Products

1 GTP, 3 NADH and 1 FADH2 then NADH and FADH2 --> electron transport cycle

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Oxidative Phosphorilation FUNC.

ETC pulls electron pairs for NADH and FADH2 ADP + Pi --> ATP and O2 + 4e + 4H --> 2 H2O

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Direct Phosphorylation net ATP

2 ATP

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Oxidative Phosphoylation net ATP

26 ATP (2.5 from each NADH and 1.5 from each FADH2)

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Cell Membrane is Selectivly Permeable to

1. Non-polar molecules (O2) 2. Lipid Soluble molecules 3. Small suluble covalent bonds (CO2) 4. H20

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Cell Membrane is Impermeable to

1. Large polar molecules 2. Charged Ions

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Passive Transport (diffusion) depends on

1. Magnitude of concentration gradient 2. Electrical potential across the membrane 3. Permeability of the membrane 4. Temperature 5. Surface area of the membrane.

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Plasma Osmolality

280-294 mOsm/ kg

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Isotonic

Equal tension to plasma --> RBC's will not +/- H20

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Hypotonic

Osmotically active solutes in a lower osmolality than cell --> RBC's will hemolyse

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Hypertonic

Osmotically active solutes in a higher osmolality than cell --> RBC's will crenate

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Characteristics of Carrier-Mediated Transport carriers

1. Specificity 2. Competition 3. Saturation 4. Ehibit Tm

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Primary Active Transport

ATP directly required for the function of the carriers

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Secondary Active Transport

Energy needed in some part of the transport process.

46

Endocytosis

Invagination of the cell membrane to bring substances into the cell

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Pinocytosis

Continuall ingestion of fluids, often used interchangably with endocytosis

48

Phagocytosis

Large molecules are engulfed so that they can by destroyed by Lysosomes

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Resting Membrane Potential

All cells are electically polarized (inside more - than outside)

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Permeability of the cell membrane

a. 80% electrochemical gradients of Na+ and K+ b. 20% Na+/K+ ATPase pump

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Excitability/ Irritability

Ability to produce and conduct electrical impulses

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K Resting Potential Intracellular

150 mEq/L

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K Resting Potential Extracellular

5 mEq/ L

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Na Resting Potential Intracellular

14 mEq/L

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Na Resting Potential Extracellular

140 mEq/L

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Threshold

when depolarization reaches the threshold an AP occurs

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Depolarization

Voltage Gated Na channels open --> +feedback loop

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Repolarization

Voltage Gated K+ channels Open --> -Feedback loop --> return to resting AP

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Hyperpolarization

More Negative than resting membrane potential

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Absolute refractory period

Incapable of producing another AP

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Relative Refractory period

can produce another AP but requires a stronger stimulus

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Cable Properties

Ability of a neuron to transmit a charge through the cytoplasm

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Unmyelinated neuron

depolarizes adjacent membrane propagating the AP. SLOW CONDUCTION RATE

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Myelinated neuron

prevents movement of Na and K through the membrane. Nodes of Ranvier contain VG Na and K channels FAST CONDUCTION

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G0 Phase

Normal cellular function, resting cell

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G1 Phase

Period between M phase and start of DNA Synthesis, Increased protein synthesis

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S Phase

DND replication occurs

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G2 Phase

Rapid cellular growth

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Prophase

DNA replicates, condensed to chromosomes Nuclear membrane disapears, spindle fibres form at opposite ends

70

Metaphase

Chromosome pairs line up at midline of cell and attach to miotic spindle

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Anaphase

sister chromatids separate, move to opposite poles, 92 nchromosomes in the cell

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Telophase

New nuclear membrane formed around each group of 46 chromosomes

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Cytokines

Cytoplasm separates into equal parts, 2 daughter cells form