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Flashcards in Patho Exam 2 Deck (90):
1

Penetrance

The precentage of individuals with the specific genotype who also exibit the expected phenotype.

2

Expressivity

The extent of variation in phenotype associated with a particular genotype. Ex) Neurofibromatosis

3

Proband

The first member of the family to be diagnosed

4

Euploid

Cells that have a multiple of 23 chromosomes. Most normal somatic cells are euploid.

5

Haploid

Gametes contain only one half of each chromosome pair, giving them a total of 23 chromosomes.

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Diploid

All 46 chromosomes occur in pairs meaning that there are 23 pairs in each somatic cell.

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Polyploigy

A cell which has more than 46 chromosomes. Some liver, bronchial and epoithelial cells are normally polyploidy. Must contain a multiple of 23 chromosomes. Eg 46 nor 93

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Aneuploidy

Cells that do not contain a multiple of 23 chromosomes, usually the result of NONDISJUNCTION. Ex. Trisomy or Momosomy

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Trisomy

Cells that contain three copies of one chromosome. Ex. Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

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Partial trisomy

Only an extra portion of a chromosome is present in each cell. Consequences are less severe

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Monosomy

Cells that contain one copy of a given chromosome. Monosomy of any cell is lethal.

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Disjunction

When homolougus chromosomes separate normally during cellular devision.

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Nondisjunction

When homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to separate normally during either meiosis or meitosis.

14

Chromosomal mosaics

Individuals who have Trisomies occuring in some cells but not others. Occurs when nondisjunction occurs in one embryotic and not the others.

15

Composition of chromatin

Deoxyribose, bases and phosphate

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Function of DNA polymerase

Adds bases to the growing 3' of a DNA molecule during replicaion. "DNA Builds":

17

Function of RNA polymerase

Pulls a portion of the DNA appart during transcription.

18

Autosomal Recessive characteristics of pedigree

Disease skips generations, is found in siblings, is eausal to both males and females.

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Autosomal Dominant characteristics of pedigree

Disease is found in every genertion, effects nearly 50% of offspring, and is equal in males and females.

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What are the two important sites on tRNA

The anticodon and the amino acid binding site.

21

Polyploidy occurs norally in which tissues

The Liver, Bronchial tissue and Epithelial cells.

22

Anuploidy occurs most frequently on which chromosomes?

13, 18 and 21

23

Fragile X Syndrome

A Trinucleotide dissorder where the CGG codon on the X chromosome is repeated nearly 200 times. It is the most prominent cause of MR. More common in males than females. Manifested by MR, Speech alterations, increased head circumfrence and joint hyperflexibility.

24

Robertson translocation

When the long arms of two chromosomes fuse at the centomere creating one large chromosome. The short arms fall away and there is no loss of genetic material. The carrier will have no phenotype however the offspring may be affected. It is limited to chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22.

25

Down Syndrome

Cuaused by trisomy 21. Occurs in 1:800 live births. Low IQ, Distinct facial features, short stature, poor muscle tone, predisposition to heart murmers, lukemia and alzheimers.

26

Turner syndrome

Caused by a having only a single X chromosome. Affects only women. Characterized by short stature, female genitalia abnormalities, webbed neck, shield like chest, underdeveloped breasts and imperfectly developed ovaries

27

Klinefelter syndrome

Caused by having atleast two X chromosomes and a Y. Chatracterized by having a male appearance, usually sterile, breast development, long limbs, tall stature and small testes.

28

Cri du chat syndrome

Caused by the deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5. Characterized by "cry of the cat" distinctive cry, low birth weight, severe mental retardation, small head size, heart defects, distict facial appearance.

29

Huntington disease

An autosomal dominant disease. Charcterized by progressive dementia and uncontrolled movements of the limb. (Huntingto's Chorea "Greek for dance")

30

Cystic fibrosis

An autosomal recessive disease found in 1:2500 white births. Causes the formation of chloride channels leading to dehydration and thick secretions.

31

Neurofibromatosis

A.K.A. Von Recklinghausen disease. Abnormal tumor supression gene. Characterization varies widely from cafe‚ au lait spots, malignant tumors, scholiosis, seizures, gliomas, hypertension, learning disabilities and neuromas.

32

Hemophilia

An X linked recessive dissorder which impairs blood clotting.

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Duchenne muscular dystrophy

X linked recessive disease. Caused by deleted portions of the DMD gene due to frameshift mutations. Characterized by progressive muscle deterioration, death caused by cardiac and respiratory failure.

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Progeny

Offspring

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Chromosomes

A single linear DNA sequence that is folded into a compact structure.

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Gene

A segment of DNA sequence that codes for the synthesis of a singal protein

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Allele

An alternative form of a gene in a specific location on a specific chromosome

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Gamete

Sperm and egg cells

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Homozygous

When the two gene pairs are identical at a locus.

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Heterozygous

When the two gene pairs are different at a locus.

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Dominant traits

The gene who's effects are observable.

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Recessive traits

The gene who's effects are hidden.

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Pedigree chart

A tool in the analysis of inheritance. It summarizes the family relationships and shows which members are affected by a genetic disease.

44

Polygenic Inheritance

Assumes multiple genes cause the disease but no environmental factors.

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Relative Risk

Compare the risk of contracting a disease by people with the risk factor to those who do not have the risk factor. Ex) British physicians and lung cancer from smoking IR Risk Factor/ IR Non Risk Factor = Relative Risk

46

Threshold of Liability

The point at which environmental factors tip the scale and a person develops a disease.

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Recurrence Risk

The likelihood that a trait or disorder present in one family member will occur again in other family members in the same or subsequent generations

48

Empiric Risk

Calculated over a large population. Populations can be matched to the patients own
-Socioeconomic class
-Ethnicity
-Geographic location
-Lifestyle
*Must be interpreted as an average estimate rather that a precise probability

49

Incidence Rate

The number of new cases of a disease reported during a specific timeframe. Ex If there are 1,000 non diseased people and 30 people contract the disease over 3 years then the incidence rate is 10 cases/ 1000 person year

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Prevalence Rate

The proportion of the population affected by the disease at a given time. It is both new and old cases. Ex) HIV the incidence rate is high in Africa however people are living for a long time with the disease, so PR is up.

51

Genetic factors of Coronary Artery Disease

- There are more affected relatives.
- Affected relatives are female rather than male.
- Age of onset younger than 55 years.
- 2-7 times more likely to have heart disease in individual with positive family history.

52

Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Autosomal dominant disease that does not spare any racial or ethnic groups. It is a single gene disorder on the LDL receptor gene. Reduces the number of available LDL receptors which limits LDL absorption and increases serum LDL levels

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LDL Receptor Mutations Class 1

Heterozygous produce only ½ of LDL receptors

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LDL Receptor Mutations Class 2

Production of altered LDL receptor

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LDL Receptor Mutations Class 3

LDL receptor cannot bind to LDL

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LDL Receptor Mutations Class 4

Receptors do not migrate to clarathin coated pits

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LDL Receptor Mutations Class 5

Receptor cannot dissociate from LDL

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Mutation of ACE gene which commonly causes Essential HTN

A deletion or insertion of intron 16

59

Alpha Adducin

Research topic for HTN. Involved in regulating sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule

60

BRCA 1

- Chromosome 17
- Tumor suppressor gene.
- Transcription and DNA repair.
- BRCA1 mutations can increase the risk of ovarian cancer among women (20-50% life-time risk

61

BRCA 2

- Chromosome 13
- Tumor suppressor gene.
- BRCA2 mutations also confer an increased risk of ovarian cancer (10-20% life-time prevalence).
- 6% males who have mutant BRCA2 develop breast cancer.
- Moderate increased risk of prostate cancers.
-Is a 100% increase in risk over the general male population.

62

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

- Caused by inactivation of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli
- APC is on chromosome 5
- APC is a tumor suppressor gene
- They effect cell adhesion and transcription factors

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Hereditary Non polyposis Colorectal Cancer

- Caused by mutations of 6 genes
- Cause a decrease in DNA repair
- Cause an increase in onca genes

64

BMI Formula

BMI = KG/ Meters Squared

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APC

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli
- Mutation on Chromosome 5

66

DCC

Deleted in Colon Cancer
- Deleted on Chromosome 18

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Likelihood of a parent passing DM 1 to child

2%-3%

68

Likelihood of a sibling of a person with DM 1 having it

7%

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likelihood of developing DM 1 with a positive father

6% by age 20

70

Likelihood of developing DM 1 with a positive mother

1% by age 20

71

Is type 1 Diabetes 100% concordant in identical twins

No

72

What are the two hits of intervention in type 1 Diabetes?

1st hit infection
2nd hit selection of the self-reactive T cells

73

Major antigens increasing the risk of Diabetes 1

DR3 and DR4. Expressed in 95% of white parents with DM 1 and only 50% of the general population

74

What percentage of offspring of DM 2 parents will develop it compared to the general population

38% of the offspring of DM2 and 11% of general pop

75

Concordance of DM2 in MZ twins after age 50

>90%

76

Pima Indians in AZ

50% have DM2 and Calpain 10 is the susceptibility gene which has been identified

77

Obesity BMI level

>30 kg/ M^2

78

Genes linked to obesity

Leptin
Neuropeptide Y
Melanacortin-4 receptor

79

PS1 Gene

Contributing gene to familial Alzheimer's. Located on chromosome 14. Disrupts Ca++ regulation in the mitochondria. Causing an increase in apoptosis

80

PS2 gene

Contributes to familial Alzheimer's. Located on chromosome 1. 80% homology to the PS1 gene.

81

APP

Amyloid-beta Precursor Protein. Pt's with Alzheimer's show an increase in mRNA which codes for APP causing an increase in neuritic plaque.

82

APOE

Apolipoprotein E which is located on Chromosome 19. Show a large increase of the likelihood of developing Alzheimer's Disease

83

Concordance rate for alcoholism in MZ twins

>60%

84

Structural abnormalities of pt's with schizophrenia

- Loss of grey matter
- Ventricular enlargement
- Decreased volume

85

Likelihood of offspring developing Schizophrenia with affected parents

13% if one parent is affected and 48% if both parents are affected

86

Susceptibility genes for schizophrenia

- DTNBP1 on chromosome 6 it produces a protein called dysbinden
- NRG1 on chromosome 8 produces neuroregulin which makes neurotransmitter receptors

87

Concordance rates for twins with schizophrenia

MZ 48%
DZ 17%

88

likelihood of parents passing bipolar onto children

50%

89

First degree relatives of a bipolar person are how many times more likely to develop it

7 times more likely

90

Gene associated with Bipolar disorder

Dopamine D4 receptor gene on chromosome 11