Anatomy of the Hip and Knee Flashcards Preview

MSK Anatomy > Anatomy of the Hip and Knee > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of the Hip and Knee Deck (28):
1

What makes up the ball and socket of the hip joint?

Ball = femoral head
Socket = acetabulum

2

The depth of the acetabulum is increased by what 2 structures?

Fibrocartilaginous acetabular labrum

Transverse acetabular ligament

3

The head of the femor is covered with articular cartilage apart for what structure?

Pit or fovea for the ligament of the head of femur

4

What are the functions of the 3 joint capsule ligaments of the hip joint?

Iliofemoral ligament
-Y shaped
-Prevents hyperextension of hip joint

Pubofemoral ligament
-Prevents overabduction of hip joint

Ischiofemoral ligament
-Secures from ischial part of the acetabular rim to the neck of the femur

5

What is the chief flexor of the hip joint?

Iliopsoas

6

What are the muscles that can flex the hip?
(6)

Iliopsoas
Sartorius
Tensor fasciae latae
Rectus femoris
Pectineus
Adductor group

7

What muscles cause hip extension?

Hamstrings

Gluteus maximus

Adductor magnus - posterior part

8

Name 3 hip abductors and medial rotators

Gluteus medius

Gluteus minimus

Tensor fasciae latae

9

Name the lateral rotators of the hip joint

Obturator internus and externus

Piriformis

Gluteus maximus

Gemelli

Quadratus femoris

10

What arteries supply the hip joint?

What artery supplies the head of femur?

Medial and lateral circumflex arteries
-Branches of profunda femoris artery

Artery to head of femur -> branch of the obturator artery

11

What nerves supply the hip joint?

Femoral nerve
Obturator nerve
Superior gluteal nerve

12

What are the two articular surfaces of the knee joint?

Femorotibial
Femoropatellar

(fibula is not involved in the knee joint)

13

Name the 4 capsular ligaments of the knee joint

Patellar ligament
Fibular collateral ligament
Tibial collateral ligament
Oblique popliteal ligament

14

The tibial collateral ligament extends between which two points?

Deep fibres of the TCL are firmly attached to what structure?

Medial epicondyle of the femur to medial condyle and medial surface of the tibia

Deep fibres firmly attached to medial meniscus

15

The fibular collateral ligament extends between which two points?

From lateral epicondyle of femur to head of fibula

16

What tendon passes deep to the fibular collateral ligament?

Tendon of popliteus

17

The intra-articular structures within the knee joint consist of what 2 structures?

Cruciate ligaments
Menisci

18

What is the weaker of the two cruciate ligaments?

Whats its blood supply like?

Anterior cruciate ligament

(poor blood supply)

19

What is the function of the anterior cruciate ligament?

Limits posterior rolling of femoral condyles on the tibia

Prevent posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia and hyperextension of knee

20

What is the function of the posterior cruciate ligament?

Limits anterior rolling of the femur on the tibia

Prevent hyperflexion of knee

21

What are the role of menisci of the knee joint?

Deepen the surface and play a role in shock absorption

22

Describe the structure of the medial and lateral menisci

(size, shape, what it connects to)

Medial meniscus
- C shaped, broader post.
-Adheres to the deep surface of TCL

Lateral meniscus
-Smaller and more freely moveable than medial
-Tendon of the popliteus separates it from the PCL

23

How many bursae are around the knee joint?

How many of these communicate with the joint cavity?

12 bursae around knee

4 communicate with the joint cavity

24

Name the bursae that communicate with the knee joint cavity

Suprapatellar bursa

Popliteal bursa

Anserine bursa

Gastrocnemius bursa

25

What causes locking and unlocking of the knee joint

(what movement is locking and unlocking?)

Locking:
-Medial rotation of femur on the tibia

Unlocking:
-Lateral rotation of femur on the tibia

26

What muscle causes the initial flexion which unlocks the knee?

Popliteus muscle

27

What are the flexors of the knee?

Hamstrings
Sartorius
Gracilis
Gastrocnemius

28

What are the extensors of the knee?

Quadriceps Femoris