Lower Limb 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Limb 4 Deck (34):
1

What is the popliteal fossa?

Fat filled diamond shaped space posterior to the knee joint

2

What are the borders of the popliteal fossa?

Upper medial border = semimembranosus muscle
Upper lateral border = biceps femoris muscle
Inferior boundary = Lateral and medial heads of the gastrocnemius

3

List the contents of the popliteal fossa

Fat

Termination of the small saphenous vein

Popliteal artery and vein and their branches and tributaries

Tibial and common fibular nerves

Posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh

Popliteal lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels

4

When does the femoral artery become the popliteal?

As it emerges from the adductor hiatus

5

What muscle makes up most of the superficial group of posterior leg muscles?

Gastrocnemius

6

how many heads does the gastrocnemius muscle have?

Two

7

What is the function of the gastrocnemius?

Powerful muscle that flexes the ankle and the knee and is essential for a walking gait

8

What nerve innervates the gatsrocnemius?

Tibial

9

What is the function of the small muscle with its very long tendon, plantaris?

Minor motor role

10

What 3 muscles make up the superficial group of the posterior leg?

Gastrocnemius
Plantaris
Soleus

11

Which nerve innervates all the muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg?

Tibial nerve

12

Which branch of the popliteal artery supplies the posterior compartment of the leg?

Posterior tibial
(fibular vessels)

13

What are the 4 muscles of the deep group of the posterior leg?

Popliteus
Tibialis posterior
Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis longus

14

What is the action of the popliteus?

Initiates flexion of the knee by unlocking it

15

Which 3 muscles pass posterior to the medial malleolus to enter the sole of the foot?

What nerve and vessel accompany them?

Tibialis posterior
Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis longus

Tibial nerve
Posterior tibial artery

16

Subtalar joint is also known as?

Talocalcaneal

17

What does plantar fasciitis present as commonly and what causes it?

Often as heel pain

Generally brought on by overuse (running) or increase in weight and/ or age

18

Between the talus and navicular bones of the foot exists what type of joint?

What movements does it allow?
What other joint assists with this?

Ball and socket

Allows foot to pivot from side to side

Talus and calcaneal (talocalcaneal = subtalar)
Slide from side to side

19

What 3 muscles are in layer 1 of the foot?

Abductor hallucis
Abductor digiti minimi
Flexor digitorum brevis

20

What structures are in layer 2 of the foot?

Flexor hallucis longus tendon
Flexor digitorum longus tendon
Quadratus plantae

Medial plantar nerve
Lateral plantar nerve and artery

21

What muscles are in layer 3 of the foot?

Transverse and oblique head of adductor hallucis
Flexor hallucis brevis
Flexor digiti minimi brevis

22

What muscles are in layer 4 of the foot?

Dorsal and plantar Interossei

23

What are the actions of the dorsal and plantar interossei?

Plantar interossei ADduct (PAD)

Dorsal interossei ABduct (DAB)

...the digits

24

Where does the axis of the foot run?

What does this mean for abductors and adductors?

Unlike in the hand the axis of the foot runs through the second digit, therefore it has 2 abductors and no adductors

25

What are the two terminal branches of the tibial nerve which innervates the intrinsic muscles of the foot?

The medial plantar and lateral plantar nerves

26

What are the two terminal branches of the posterior tibial artery which supply the foot region?

Lateral plantar artery
Medial plantar artery

27

The bones of the foot are arranged in two arches.

What is the orrientation of these arches?

Longitudinal and transverse

28

What is the function of the arches of the foot?

Distribute body weight
SHock absorbers

29

Body weight acting vertically downwards on the talus will cause what?

Force the navicular and calcaneus bones apart.

30

Body weight on the foot is resisted by what structures?

This force is resisted by many of the muscle tendons which cross these joints but also by an important ligament.

This is the plantar calcaneonavicular or "spring" ligament.

This helps to maintain the medial longitudinal arch and contribute to the subtalar joints

31

What passive factors maintain the integrity of the arches?

Shape of the united bones
Plantar aponeurosis
Long plantar ligament
Short plantar ligament

32

What dynamic factors maintain the integrity of the arches?

Intrinsic muscles of the foot
Long flexor tendons
Tendon of tibialis anterior and fibularis longus

33

WHat is the medical name for flat feet?

Pes Planus

34

What is the order for the structures entering the "door to the foot"?

TOM = Tibialis Posterior
DICK = Flexor digitorum longus
and
BLOODY = Posterior Tibial artery
NERVOUS = Tibial Nerve
HARRY = Flexor hallucis longus