Flashcards in Lower Limb 2 Deck (51):
What is the structure of the pelvic girdle?
(what makes it up)
Pelvic girdle is a bony ring consisting of the sacrum and right and left hip bones joined anteriorly at the pubis symphesis and posteriorly by the sacroiliac joints
Which sciatic foramen is the route for structures entering or leaving the pelvis?
Greater sciatic foramen
Which sciatic foramen is the route for structures entering or leaving the perineum?
Lesser sciatic foramen
The gluteal muscles are organised into two layers.
What muscles make up the superficial layer?
Tensor fasciae latae
The gluteal muscles are organised into 2 layers.
What muscles make up the deep layer?
Superior and inferior gemelli
What is the deep fascia of the thigh called?
Which two muscles attach to the iliotibial tract?
Tensor fascia lata
What are the actions of the gluteus maximus muscle?
The gluteus maximus is innervated by which nerve?
Inferior gluteal nerve
What is the action of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fascia lata?
Abduct and medially rotate hip
WHich nerve innervates the gluteus medius, minimus, and tensor fascia lata?
Superficial gluteal nerve
What is the action of deep muscles of the gluteal region on the hip joint?
They are stabilisers of hip joint and lateral rotators of hip joint
Anterior to which posterior pelvic muscle is the sacral plexus found?
(So looking at someones bum the sciatic nerve lies just under gluteus maximus)
The sacral plexus is formed by the union of the ventral rami of which spinal nerves?
L4 and L5
What nerves are the two main branches of the sacral plexus?
The lumbosacral trunk is formed by the union of what?
L4 and L5
What is the root value of the superior gluteal nerve?
List the muscles supplied by the superior gluteal nerve
Tensor fascia lata
What is the root value of the inferior gluteal nerve?
What muscle does the inferior gluteal nerve supply?
Inferior to which muscle in the gluteal region does the sciatic nerve emerge?
What are the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve?
Common fibular nerve
Does the sciatic nerve supply any muscles in the gluteal region?
What two joints do the hamstrings act on?
Hip and knee joint
What is the most lateral hamstring muscle?
Name the 4 muscles of the posterior thigh region.
Which 3 are collectively termed the hamstrings?
Biceps femoris long head
Biceps femoris short head
First 3 are termed hamstrings
What are the action of the hamstrings on the hip and knee joint?
Extend hip joint
Flex knee joint
Which nerve innervates the posterior thigh muscles?
Tibial division of sciatic apart from short head
(short head common fibular division)
What type of joint is the knee joint?
Compound hinge, synovial joint
What movements are the knee joints capable of?
Primarily flexion and extension
Small active and passive rotation can occur
What are the articular surfaces of the knee joint?
Medial and lateral condyles of the femur
Posterior surface of patella
What leg bone is not involved in the knee joint?
What does the stability of the knee joint depend on?
Strength and action of surrounding muscles and their tendons and ligaments connecting the femur and tibia
What is the most important muscle which helps to stabilise the knee joint?
The fibular or lateral collateral ligament (LCL) extends from where to where?
Extends from the lateral epicondyle of femur to the lateral surface of the head of the fibula.
How does the tendon of the popliteus muscle pass in relation to the LCL?
Why is this important?
Popliteus tendon passes deep to LCL
This separates LCL from lateral meniscus
Where does the tibial or medial collateral ligament (MCL) extend from and where does it insert?
Extends from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle and upper part of the medial surface of the tibia.
At its midpoint the MCL is attached to what?
Why is this clinically important?
If you damage the MCL you might easily damage medial meniscus at the same time
The anterior and posterior cruciate ligament are named in relation to their attachments where?
Attachment to tibia
What are the functions of the anterior cruciate ligament?
Prevents femur from sliding posteriorly (prevents tibia sliding anteriorly) and so prevents hyperextension of the knee
What is the function of the posterior cruciate ligament?
Prevents the femur from sliding anteriorly on the tibia
What is the structure of the menisci?
C shaped plates of fibrocartilage on the articular surface of the tibia
What are the main functions of the menisci?
Deepen the surface and play a role in shock absorption
Which meniscus firmly adheres to the deep surface of the tibia or medial collateral ligament?
What is the "unhappy triad"?
Impacts to the knee generally come from a lateral direction.
This puts load on the medial collateral ligament, which is attached to the medial meniscus and both tear.
This puts load upon the ACL, which then tears, leading to 3 injuries in one.
What is Prepatellar bursitis called?
How does it occur?
Caused by the friction between the skin and the patella.
The bursa may distend with fluid and form a swelling in front of the knee
Which bursa communicates with the articular cavity of the knee joint?
What is the nerve root for the superior gluteal nerve?
What is the nerve root for the inferior gluteal nerve?
What is the nerve root for the sciatic nerve?