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Flashcards in Lower Limb 2 Deck (51):
1

What is the structure of the pelvic girdle?

(what makes it up)

Pelvic girdle is a bony ring consisting of the sacrum and right and left hip bones joined anteriorly at the pubis symphesis and posteriorly by the sacroiliac joints

2

Which sciatic foramen is the route for structures entering or leaving the pelvis?

Greater sciatic foramen

3

Which sciatic foramen is the route for structures entering or leaving the perineum?

Lesser sciatic foramen

4

The gluteal muscles are organised into two layers.

What muscles make up the superficial layer?

Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus
Tensor fasciae latae

5

The gluteal muscles are organised into 2 layers.

What muscles make up the deep layer?

Piriformis
Obturator internus
Superior and inferior gemelli
Quadratus femoris

6

What is the deep fascia of the thigh called?

Fascia lata

7

Which two muscles attach to the iliotibial tract?

Tensor fascia lata
Gluteus maximus

8

What are the actions of the gluteus maximus muscle?

Extends hip
Lateral rotation

9

The gluteus maximus is innervated by which nerve?

Inferior gluteal nerve

10

What is the action of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fascia lata?

Abduct and medially rotate hip

11

WHich nerve innervates the gluteus medius, minimus, and tensor fascia lata?

Superficial gluteal nerve

12

What is the action of deep muscles of the gluteal region on the hip joint?

They are stabilisers of hip joint and lateral rotators of hip joint

13

Anterior to which posterior pelvic muscle is the sacral plexus found?

Gluteus maximus

(So looking at someones bum the sciatic nerve lies just under gluteus maximus)

14

The sacral plexus is formed by the union of the ventral rami of which spinal nerves?

L4 and L5
S1-S4

15

What nerves are the two main branches of the sacral plexus?

Sciatic nerve
Pudendal nerve

16

The lumbosacral trunk is formed by the union of what?

L4 and L5

17

What is the root value of the superior gluteal nerve?

L4-S1

18

List the muscles supplied by the superior gluteal nerve

Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus
Tensor fascia lata

19

What is the root value of the inferior gluteal nerve?

L5-S2

20

What muscle does the inferior gluteal nerve supply?

Gluteus maximus

21

Inferior to which muscle in the gluteal region does the sciatic nerve emerge?

Piriformis

22

What are the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve?

Tibial nerve
Common fibular nerve

23

Does the sciatic nerve supply any muscles in the gluteal region?

NO

24

What two joints do the hamstrings act on?

Hip and knee joint

25

What is the most lateral hamstring muscle?

Biceps femoris

26

Name the 4 muscles of the posterior thigh region.

Which 3 are collectively termed the hamstrings?

Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Biceps femoris long head
Biceps femoris short head

First 3 are termed hamstrings

27

What are the action of the hamstrings on the hip and knee joint?

Extend hip joint
Flex knee joint

28

Which nerve innervates the posterior thigh muscles?

Tibial division of sciatic apart from short head

(short head common fibular division)

29

What type of joint is the knee joint?

Compound hinge, synovial joint

30

What movements are the knee joints capable of?

Primarily flexion and extension
Small active and passive rotation can occur

31

What are the articular surfaces of the knee joint?

Medial and lateral condyles of the femur
Tibia
Posterior surface of patella

32

What leg bone is not involved in the knee joint?

Fibula

33

What does the stability of the knee joint depend on?

Strength and action of surrounding muscles and their tendons and ligaments connecting the femur and tibia

34

What is the most important muscle which helps to stabilise the knee joint?

Quadriceps femoris

35

The fibular or lateral collateral ligament (LCL) extends from where to where?

Extends from the lateral epicondyle of femur to the lateral surface of the head of the fibula.

36

How does the tendon of the popliteus muscle pass in relation to the LCL?

Why is this important?

Popliteus tendon passes deep to LCL

This separates LCL from lateral meniscus

37

Where does the tibial or medial collateral ligament (MCL) extend from and where does it insert?

Extends from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle and upper part of the medial surface of the tibia.

38

At its midpoint the MCL is attached to what?

Why is this clinically important?

Medial meniscus

If you damage the MCL you might easily damage medial meniscus at the same time

39

The anterior and posterior cruciate ligament are named in relation to their attachments where?

Attachment to tibia

40

What are the functions of the anterior cruciate ligament?

Prevents femur from sliding posteriorly (prevents tibia sliding anteriorly) and so prevents hyperextension of the knee

41

What is the function of the posterior cruciate ligament?

Prevents the femur from sliding anteriorly on the tibia

42

What is the structure of the menisci?

C shaped plates of fibrocartilage on the articular surface of the tibia

43

What are the main functions of the menisci?

Deepen the surface and play a role in shock absorption

44

Which meniscus firmly adheres to the deep surface of the tibia or medial collateral ligament?

Medial meniscus

45

What is the "unhappy triad"?

Impacts to the knee generally come from a lateral direction.

This puts load on the medial collateral ligament, which is attached to the medial meniscus and both tear.

This puts load upon the ACL, which then tears, leading to 3 injuries in one.

46

What is Prepatellar bursitis called?
How does it occur?

Housemaid's knee

Caused by the friction between the skin and the patella.
The bursa may distend with fluid and form a swelling in front of the knee

47

Which bursa communicates with the articular cavity of the knee joint?

Suprapatellar

48

What is the nerve root for the superior gluteal nerve?

L4-S1

49

What is the nerve root for the inferior gluteal nerve?

L5-S2

50

What is the nerve root for the sciatic nerve?

L4-S3

51

What is the nerve root for the pudendal nerve?

S2-S4