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Flashcards in Upper Limb 2 Deck (52):
1

What are the 3 important muscles of the anterior arm?

What nerve supplies these muscles?

Biceps bracii
Coracobrachialis
Brachialis

Musculocutaneous nerve

2

What is the origin and insertion of the biceps bracii?

Long head:
-Supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
-Radial tuberosity

Short head:
-Coracoid process
-Radial tuberosity

3

What 3 joints does the biceps bracii act on?

Shoulder
Elbow
Radio-ulnar joints

4

What two muscles arise from the coracoid process?

Short head of the biceps bracii
Coracobrachialis

5

What groove does the long head of the biceps bracii run in after arising from the supraglenoid tubercle?

Bicipital groove

6

What is the action of the biceps bracii at each of its joints?

Flexes shoulder and elbow joint

Supination of the radio-ulnar joint

7

Which segmental fibres mainly innervate biceps bracii?

C5 and C6

8

From which cord of the brachial plexus is the musculocutaneous nerve a branch of?

Lateral cord

9

What is the origin and insertion of the coracobrachialis?

Tip of the coracoid process
Medial margin of the humerus about its middle

10

What is the action of the coracobrachialis on the shoulder joint?

Flexion and adduction

11

What is the nerve supply of the coracobrachialis?

Musculocutaneous nerve

12

What is the origin and insertion of the brachialis?

Arises from the front of the distal half of the shaft of the humerus
Inserted into coronoid process of ulna

13

What is the main action of the brachialis on the elbow joint?

Flexes elbow in all positions

14

What nerve supplies the brachialis muscle?

Musculocutaneous nerve

15

What muscle does the musculocutaneous nerve perforate to enter the arm?

Coracobracialis

16

Between which two muscles does the musculocutaneous nerve descend between?

Biceps bracii
Brachialis

17

After supplying the muscles of the arm what does the musculocutaneous nerve continue as?

Lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm

18

What is the segmental or root value of the musculocutaneous nerve?

C5-C7

19

Injury to the musculocutaneous nerve from a weapon such as a knife would result in what?

Paralysis of biceps bracii, coracobrachialis and brachialis

Loss of sensation on the lateral aspect of forearm

20

Where does the brachial artery start and end?

Direct continuation of the axillary artery which begins at the lower border of teres major muscle and ends in the cubital fossa close to the neck of the radius dividing into radial and ulnar arteries

21

What is the deep artery of the arm called?

Which artery gives it off as a branch?

Profunda brachii

Main branch given off by the brachial artery in the arm

22

Where is the best place to compress the brachial artery to control haemorrhage?

Middle of the arm/ middle third

23

The median nerve arises in the axilla by two roots from the brachial plexus.

What are these?

One from medial cord and one from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus

24

Describe the route of the median nerve in the arm once it is formed

Descends along the lateral side of axillary artery and upper part of brachial artery.

At the middle part of the arm the nerve crosses to the medial side of brachial artery and enters the cubital fossa.

Gives no branches in the axilla or the upper arm

25

What does the median nerve supply?

Muscles in anterior compartment of forearm (apart from flexor carpi ulnaris and ulnar half of flexor digitorum profundus)

26

What cord of the brachial plexus does the ulnar nerve arise from?

Medial cord of the brachial plexus

27

What is the route of the ulnar nerve in the arm once it arises?

Descends along the medial side of brachial artery and then it enters the posterior compartment of arm through the medial intermuscular septum runs along the medial head of triceps and to the back of the medial epicondyle

28

What muscles does the ulnar nerve supply?

Flexor carpi ulnaris and ulnar half of flexor digitorum profundus

Most intrinsic muscles of hand

29

What are the 3 common sites of humerus where 3 nerves could be damaged due to fracture?

Radial nerve -> radial groove
Ulnar nerve -> medial epicondyle
Axillary nerve -> surgical neck

30

What is the cubital fossa?

Triangular depression or a hollow in front of the elbow

Corresponds to the popliteal fossa at the back of the knee

31

What makes up the borders of the cubital fossa?

Base -> imagery line between two epicondyles
Medial border -> pronator teres muscle
Lateral border -> brachioradialis muscle

32

List some of the contents of the cubital fossa

Bifurcation of the brachial artery
Deep accompanying veins
Biceps bracii tendon
Median nerve
Radial nerve dividing into superficial and deep branches

33

What is usually the vein of choice for intravenous injections?

Median cubital vein

34

What is the origin and insertion of the triceps?

Long head:
-Infragenoid tubercle of the Scapula
-Olecranon process of the ulna

Lateral and medial heads:
-Humerus
-Olecranon process of the ulna

35

What is the main action of the triceps on the elbow joint?

Extension

36

What is the action of the anconeus muscle on the elbow joint?

Assists triceps in extending elbow joint;
Stabilises elbow joint;
Abducts ulna during pronation

37

What is the action to triceps and anconeus muscle?

Radial nerve

38

What does the radial nerve supply?

Extensor compartment of arm and forearm
Innervates all the extensor muscles of elbow and wrist joint

39

What is the route of the radial nerve once it arises?

Enters the arm anterior to the long head of triceps and runs along with the profunda femoris artery (deep artery of the arm) a main branch of the brachial artery and curves around the midshaft region of the humerus in the radial groove

40

What is the segmental (root value) of the radial nerve?

C5-T1

41

What is the characteristic clinical sign of radial nerve injury?

Wrist drop

42

What type of synovial joint is the elbow joint?

Synovial hinge

43

The fibrous layer of the joint capsule of the elbow joint is thickened on the medial and lateral aspect of the joint to form strong bands called what?

Is this the same with the anterior and posterior aspects?
Why?

Collateral ligament

Capsule is loose both on the anterior and posterior aspect of the joint to allow movement

44

Which ligament holds the head of the radius?

Anular ligament

45

What are the flexors of the elbow joint?

Brachialis
Biceps bracii
Brachioradialis

46

What are the extensors of the elbow joint?

Triceps bracii
Anconeus

47

Friction subcutaneous olecranon bursitis is also called what?
Why?

Students elbow

Students sitting at desk all day

48

What type of synovial joint are the radio-ulnar joints?

Pivot type synovial joints

49

What are the muscles involved in supination at the radio-ulnar joints?

Main
-Supinator
-Biceps bracii

Other muscles assisting:
-Extensor pollicis longus
-Extensor carpi radialis longus

50

What are the muscles involved in pronation at the radio-ulnar joints?

Main
-Pronator teres
-Pronator quadratus

Other muscles assisting:
-Flexor carpi radialis
-Palmaris longus
-Brachioradialis

51

What is the most powerful supinator of the forearm?

Biceps bracii

52

Which muscle is the most powerful pronator of the forearm?

Pronator teres