Anatomy- Reproductive system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy- Reproductive system Deck (21):
1

Spermatids

Immature sperm that enter the epididymis, where their waiting game begins and maturation is completed

2

Secondary Spermatocytes

Cells formed during spermatogenesis that give rise to spermatid and eventually sperm

3

Primary Spermatocytes

Produced by mitotic division, these cells immediately undergo meiosis I to produce two secondary spermatocytes, which undergo meiosis II to produce four spermatids

4

Secondary Oocytes

Cells that are a production of primary oocytes completing meiosis I
Have half the genetic information of the parent cells, but the majority of their cytoplasm
If successful fertilization occurs, the secondary oocyte will enter meiosis II

5

Primary Oocytes

Cells that mitotic division turns fetal cells into
When the female enters puberty and the menstrual cylce begns each month, one of the primary oocytes frozen in prophase I returns to action and completes meiosis I

6

Uterus

Stie of embryo attachment and development in mammals

7

Cervix

Narrowed opening that connects the uterus and vaginal opening

8

Oviduct

The fallopian tube
The place where the sperm usually meets the egg for fertilization

9

Seminal Vesicles

Structures that dump fluids into the vas deferens to send along with the sperm
Provides 3 advantages to the sperm 1) energy by adding fructose 2) power to progress through the female reproductive system by adding prostaglandin 3) mucus, which helps the sperm swim more effectively.

10

Vas Deferens

A tunnel that connects the epididymis to the urethra, where sperm and urine are ejected.

11

Prostate Gland

Structure whose function in the male reproductive system is to add a basic liquid to the mix to help neutralized the acidity fo the urine that may remain in the common urethral passage.

12

Endometrium

The inner wall of the uterus

13

Epididymis

The coiled region that extends from the testes

14

Interstitial Cells

Cells in the testes that produce the hormones involved in the male reproductive system

15

Scrotum

Sac that contains the testis

16

Seminiferious Tubules

The portion of the testis where the sperm is made

17

Four stages during the menstrual cycle

1) Follicular stage
2) Ovulation stage
3) Luteal stage
4) Menstruation

18

Follicular Stage

- FSH produced by the anterior pituitary gland targets cavities in the ovaries called FOLLICLES, where the immature e.g. cells are found
- FSH also stimulates the ovary to begin the production of ESTROGEN
- ESTROGEN targets the uterus and stimulates it to begin preparing a special lining with many capillaries to receive the fertilized egg.
- As the level of estrogen in the blood increases, a negative feedback mechanism occurs. The pituitary gland stops FSH production, and begins to make LH

19

Ovulation Stage

- As the level of LH in the blood increases, it stimulates one of the follicles in the ovary to rupture and release the egg.
The ovary repairs the damage by producing a mass of cells in the follicle called a CORPUS LUTEUM

20

Luteal Stage

- The CORPUS LUTEUM produces PROGESTERONE, which targets the uterus and instructs it to maintain its lining. As the level of progesterone in the blood increases, a negative feedback mechanism occurs. LH production is halted.

21

Menstruation

At this stage, ESTROGEN and PROGESTERONE levels are very low, resulting in a breakdown of the uterine lining, which passes out of the vagina.
- However, if the egg is fertilized in a fallopian tube and implantation occurs in the uterus, PROGESTERONE produced by the developing embryo maintains the uterine lining throughout pregnancy