Endocrine system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine system Deck (32):
1

Positive Feedback

Process by which a hormone acts to directly or indirectly cause increased secretion of a hormone

2

Negative Feedback

Process by which a hormone acts to directly or indirectly inhibit further secretion of the hormone of interest

3

Thyroxine

Hormone that stimulates metabolic activities
Produced by parafollicular cells of the thyroid

4

Calcitonin

Hormone that lowers blood Calcium
Works antagonistically to PTH
Produced by thyroid

5

Two Thyroid Hormones

Calcitonin and Thyroxine

6

Testosterone

Hormone that stimulates sex characteristics in men
Secreted in the testes

7

Estrogen

Secreted in ovaries
Induces release of LH in menstrual cycle
With progresterone, helps maintain the endometrium during pregnancy

8

Progresterone

Hormone that regulates the menstrual cycle and pregnancy

9

Three Main Sex Hormones

Progresterone, Estrogen and Testosterone

10

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Increases serum concentrations of calcium
Targets SKELETON - cause digestion of bone matrix and release of calcium. KIDNEYS- causes increased reabsorption of Ca from the forming urine and returns it to the blood. SMALL INTESTINE- cause increased absorption of Ca by the intesitinal mucosal cells

11

Glucagon

Hormone that stimulates conversion of glycogen into glucose
Raises blood sugar
Produced by pancreas

12

Insulin

Hormone that is secreted in response to high blood glucose levels to promote glycogen formation
Lowers blood sugar
Produced by pancreas

13

Two Hormones of the Pancreas

Insulin and Glucagon

14

Epinephrine

Hormone that raises blood glucose level, increases metabolic activity
Produced by the adrenal gland

15

Cortisol

Distress hormone released in responses to physiological challenges
Produced by the adrenal gland

16

Three Hormones of the Adrenal Gland

Cortisol, Aldosterone and Epinephrine

17

Oxytocin

Hormone that stimulates uterine contraction and milk ejection for breast-feeding
Produced by posterior pituitary

18

ADH

Stimulates reabsorption of water by the collecting ducts of the nephron
Produced by posterior pituitary
Increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water, leading to more concentrated urine

19

Two Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary

ADH and Oxytocin

20

Prolactin

Hormone that controls lactogenesis- production of milk by the breasts
Decreases the synthesis and real ease of GnRH- inhibiting ovulation
Produced by anterior pituitary

21

ACTH

Stimulates the secretion of adrenal cordical hormones, which work to maintain electrolytic homeostasis in the body
Produced by anterior pituitary
Released corticosteroid hormones like glucocorticoids, gonadocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.

22

STH

Somatotropic hormone (HGH)
Stimulates protein synthesis and general growth in the body
Produced by anterior pituitary

23

TSH

Thyroid- stimulating hormone
Works to stimulate the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones, which in turn regulate the rate of metabolism in the body
Produced by anterior pituitary

24

LH

Luteinizing hormone
Gonadotropin that stimulates ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum
Stimulates synthesis of estrogen and progesterone
Produced by anterior pituitary

25

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone
Gonadotropin that stimulates activities of the testes and ovaries
In females, it induces the development of the ovarian follicle, which leads to the production and secretion of estrogen
Produced by anterior pituitary

26

Six Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland

FSH, LH, TSH, STH (HGH), ACTH and prolactin

27

Aldosterone

Produced in the adrenal gland.
Acts on the distal tubules to cause the reabsorption of more Na+ and water to increase blood volume and pressure

28

Growth Hormone (GH)

Stimulates most body cells to increase in size and divide. Its major targets are the bones and skeletal muscles. Induces glucose. GH release is controlled by hormones from the hypothalamus which stimulates or inhibits its release.

29

Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex

Zona glomerulosa - produces mineralcorticoids which help control the balance of minerals and water in the blood
Zona fasciculata -secretes the metabolic hormones called glococorticoids
Zona reticularis - secretes the glococorticoids and small amounts of adrenal sex hormones or gonadocorticoids

30

Glococorticoids

Preventing shift of water into tissue cells.
Main function is to help the body with long term response to stress like infection and trauma

31

Mineralocortioids

Decreases the excretion of Na from the body.
K is excreted
H2O is retained.

32

Gonadocorticoids

Produce testosterone similar functions as gonads