Embryology Flashcards Preview

Biology > Embryology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Embryology Deck (21):
1

Induction

Influence of one group of cells on the development of another, through physical contact or chemical signaling

2

Cytoplasmic Distribution

Different amounts of cytoplasm signal different organelles and cytoplasmic structures.

3

Amnion

Formed from epiblast
Surrounds fluid-filled cushion that protects the developing embryo
Present in birds, lizards, and humans

4

Allantois

Mammalian waste transporter
Later it becomes the umbilical cord, which carrier oxygen, food, and waste back and forth from placenta to embryo

5

Chorion

Formed from the trophoblast
Site of implantation onto the endometrium
Contributes to the formation of the placenta in mamals

6

Yolk Sac

Derived from the hypoblast
Site of early blood cell creation in humans
Source of nutrients for bird and reptile embryos

7

Somite

Structure that gives rise to the muscles and vertebrae in mammals

8

Neural Tube

Embryonic structure that gives rise to the central nervous system

9

Neural Groove

Gutterlike groove formed in the midline of the embryon's dorsal surface by the progressive elevation of the lateral margins of the neural plate, resulting in the formation of the neural tube

10

Neural Plate

Structure that becomes the neural groove, which eventually becomes the nerual tube
This neural tube later gives rise to the central nervouse sustem

11

Notochord

Structure that serves to support the body
Found in the embryos of chordates

12

Ectoderm

Outer germ layer
Gives rise to nervous system, skin, hair and nails

13

Mesoderm

Intermediate germ layer
Gives rise to muscle, the circulatory system, reproductive system, excretory organs, bones, and connective tissues of the gut and exterior of the body

14

Endoderm

Inner germ layer
Gives rise to the lining of the gut and the digestive system, liver, thryroid, lungs and bladder

15

Three Germ layers of the Epiblast

Endoderm
Mesoderm
Ectorderm

16

Inner Cell Mass

Portion of the blastula that develops into the embryo

17

Trophoblast

Forms the placenta for the developing fetus, and aids in attachment ot the endometrium
This structure also produces human chorionic gonadotropin (HCP), which maintains the endometrium by ensuring the contiunued producitno of progesterone.

18

Blastula

What the embryo is called when it has become thirty-two cells
By this time it is implanted in the endometrial wall

19

Morula

What the embryo is called when it has become sixteen cells

20

Hans Spemann

His experiments revealed that the notochord induces cells of the dorsal ectoderm to develop into the neural plate
When cells from the notochord of an embryo are transplanted to a different place near the ectoderm, the neural plate will develop in the new location.

21

Homeotic Genes

Genes that regulate or direct the body plan of organisms