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Flashcards in Plant Biology Deck (19):
1

Propagation from Roots

When placed in water or moist soil, shoot sprout from this root. These shoots can be removed and replanted to form new sweet potato plants.

2

Propagation from Stems

Runners (stolons), Rhizomes, Tubers, Bulbs and Corms.

3

Runners (stolons)

A runner is an aboveground stem that grows horizontally along the surface when the stem touches the ground

4

Rhizomes

A rhizome is an underground stem that grows horizontally along the surface; shoots from buds at nodes (enlarged areas) of the stem develop into a new plant.

5

Tubers

are enlarged and thickened underground stems. If pieces of potato with buds (eyes) are cut out and planted in oil, new potato plants can form

6

Bulbs

Have a short, underground stem and thick, fleshy leaves that are colorless. A bulb can produce can produce several smaller bulbs, each of which can grow into a new plant.

7

Corms

Is an enlarged, short, underground stem that stores food.

8

The life cycle of an anthophyte plant

Flower formation -> gametophyte formation -> pollination -> fertilization -> seed formation -> seed dispersal -> germination -> sporophyte -> growth and development -> flower formation.

9

Stamen

Filament: is a thin stalk that supports the anther
Anther: Each anther of a flower produces thousands of pollen grains, which are the male gametophytes. Many pollen grains contain three monoploid nuclei surrounded by a protective outer wall (one tube nucleus and two sperm nuclei)

10

Pistil

Stigma: is sticky and holds pollen grains that fall on it
STYLE: a narrow stalk-like structure taht connects the stigma to the ovary
OVARY: the ovary produces the female gametophytes of the flower.

11

Petals

are modified leaves that are white or colored

12

Sepals

are modified leaves that are usually green in color and protect the bud.

13

Fertilization

- One sperm nucleus (n) fertilizes the egg cell (n) to produce a diploid zygote (2n). This zygote becomes the embryo of the seed.
- The other sperm nucleus (n) combines with the cell that has the two monoploid polar nuclei to form the ENDOSPERM NUCLUS (3n). this 3n cell becomes the endosperm of the seed

14

Seed Structure and Function

MONOCOTYLEDONS: have one seed part that cannot be split
DICOTYLEDONS: have two seed parts that can be split in two

15

Various parts of a seed

SEED COAT: a thin outer covering that protects the embryo and endosperm of the seed
MICROPYLE: a tiny opening in the seed through which the sperm nuclei enters to fertilize the egg of the ovule
HILUM: a scar that shows where the stalk attached the seed to the inside of the ovary
COTYLEDON; are the seed leaves that contain the endosperm
ENDOSPERM: this structure forms from the 3n cell of the ovule. It is food for the germinating seed.
EMBRYO: contains EPICOTYL: consists of two leaves that become the upper part of the stem and the leaves of the plant. HYPOCOTYL: Upon germination, the hypocotyl develops into the roots and the lower part of the stem.

16

3 Distinct types of cells in dicot vascular bundles

PHLOEM cells carry food materials such as sugar and starch through the leaf, down the stem
CAMBIUM cells: contains meristematic cells that are capable of reproduction. Produces PHLOEM and XYLEM.
XYLEM cells carry water and minerals up from the roots.

17

2 Distinct type of cells in moncot vascular bundles

PHLOEM and XYLEM

18

Root structures

ROOT HAIR CELLS: elongated cells, large surface to increase absorption of star.
CORTEX CELLS; surround the vascular cylinder, which store food.
MERISTEMATIC CELLS: at the root cap. causing the root to grow deeper into the ground.

19

Leaf structures

CUTICLE: a thin, waxy layer that covers the upper epidermis of the leaf
UPPER EPIDERMIS layer, a single layer of clear cells that allows light to pass through and prevents the loss of water.
PALISADE layer: contains long columnar cells that are packed tightly together. Contains chloroplasts and are the main cells carrying out photosynthesis
SPONGY MESOPHYLL LAYER: the spongy mesophyll layer contains cells with chroloplasts and is a major site of photosynthesis.
AIR SPACE: exchange CO2 and O2.
LOWER EPIDERMIS LAYER: contains STOMATES and GUARD CELLS
STOMATES: an opening in the lower epidermis that allows carbon dioxide into the leaf and water and oxygen oft of the leaf.
GUARD CELLS: containing chloroplasts, responsible for forming stomates. During the day, they produce sugar, causing their walls to curve inward and away from each other and creating a space between the cells called a stomate. They close at night.