Flashcards in Ancient Egypt Lesson1 Deck (32):
primitive water pump
vulture goddess, patron diety of Nekheb, capital of upper Egypt
cobra goddess, patron diety of Buto, capital of lower Egypt
small ponds that caught flood waters
a single province composed of many villages in a local area
powerful leader who ruled a nome
What was northern Africa like at the end of the last great Ice Age?
grassy fields and green woodlands covered the plains of what is now the Sahara Desert.
Antelope, bison, elephants, wild pigs and tropical birds provided hunters with a plentiful food supply.
What was an important discovery that changed the way of life for Egypt forever?
Placing seeds in the soil near the river allowed the Nile River dwellers to grow crops
What caused the annual flooding of the Nile?
Heavy spring rains and melting snow in the mountains of Ethiopia
How did the shaduf work?
Like a see-saw. The farmer pulled on one end of the stick with the bucket and lowered it to the water
What were the narrow strips of land on either side of the Nile River from the First Cataract to the Delta called and why?
Upper and Lower Egypt.
Upper- it was upstream from the Delta
Lower- it was in low marshy land
What did the ancient Egyptians call the desert land that didn't border the river? Why?
The red land. It was ochre-colored sand and rock desert land.
Where did the Egyptians build their villages
Near the edges of the Nile- near the black land - Kemet
What are 2 reasons the Egyptians built their villages near the Nile?
The soil was fertile with lots of vegetation and animals
They could grow their own crops
List 5 ways ancient Egyptians use the animals they domesticated?
1. cattle, donkeys, goats and geese were used as a source of food and clothing
2. Herds of sheep and goats could be driven into the field to trample and press seeds into the soil
3. Oxen to drive the plows
4. Greyhounds and a variety of cats became domesticated (pets)
5. Bees were domesticated and their honey was used to sweeten food
Identify the 3 most important crops and their uses
1. wheat- for making bread
2. barley- to make beer
3. flax- fibers used to make linen for clothes
What is the specialization of labor, and what does it allow people to do?
It allows people to use their special skills to do what they do best. There could be better crops and tools
Why was specialization of labor important?
When farmers were able to harvest 3 different crops in a single year- there could be a specialization of tasks. Men who were skilled with their hands could leave farming to others and make tools and household items.
This was an important step in the development of CIVILIZATION
How did irrigation lead to a system of government?
Irrigation required farmers to work together COOPERATIVELY.
The network of waterways had to be inspected because the neglect of one farmer could imperil the harvest of everyone.
Local governments were created to organize and oversee the irrigation projects and to expand into other villages. The NOMARCHS ruled over the nome villages.
What were the nomarchs 3 main responsibilities?
1. oversee the construction and maintenance of the irrigation system
2. oversee the storing of surplus grain
3. collect taxes
Why is upper Egypt BELOW Lower Egypt on the map?
Upper Egypt's land is higher. Lower Egypt's land is in low, marshy land
The Nile River lows toward the Egypt delta which lies in the north.
The nomes of the first Cataract and the delta were called what? Why?
the Kingdom of Upper Egypt. They were upstream from the delta.
What was the kingdom of the Delta called and why?
The Kingdom of the Lower Egypt. It was downstream of the Nile Valley- the area where the Nile emptied in to the Mediterranean Sea.
What effect did a surplus of goods have on the villages?
Trade between neighboring villages.
How did the Nile River become a highway?
People made boats and sailboats and could go upstream and downstream
What were 5 things that were traded by the people of the Delta (lower Egypt)?
onions, lettuce, watermelons, leather, papyrus
What were 5 things that were traded by the people of Upper Egypt?
limestone, sandstone, granite, alabaster, basalt
What were 2 main differences between upper and lower Egypt kingdoms?
Culture- lower Egyptians were more open and receptive to new ideas.
Language- their dialects were different
Who Unified the 2 Egyptian kingdoms
King Menes- the ruler of Upper Egypt. He wore a double crown to symbolize the 2 kingdoms. The red cone symbolized lower Egypt and the white cone symbolized upper Egypt.
Where was the capital city of the Unified kingdom of upper and lower Egypt
Memphis because it was centrally located .