Flashcards in Lesson 2/Civilization in Mesopotamia Deck (33):
A centralized society with developed forms of religion, ways of governing and learning.
the skills and knowledge to make products or meet goals
a huge, mud-brick temple built by the Sumerians
an organized system that groups use to make laws and decisions
includes a city and the farm-lands around it
one person that has complete authority to rule in peace time and lead soldiers in war time.
a person who buys and sells goods
groups with different levels of importance
a person who writes things for others
a new way of doing things
What is a civilization (all 7 characteristics)
people living with shared:
stable food supply
system of writing
How did dikes help the farmers of Sumer?
They held back flood rivers.
How did canals help the farmers of Sumer?
They carried extra water back to the rivers.
How did reservoirs help the farmers of Sumer?
They stored the remaining flood waters.
What were 2 inventions that helped the Sumerian people move things?
the wheel and sail boats.
How did the religion in Sumer reflect the importance of agriculture?
1. If they please the gods, they would get big harvests in return
2. If they displeased the gods, the would get floods and other natural disasters
Who was Enil?
the Sumer god of wind, storm and rain
Who was Ea?
the Sumer god of water and wisdom
What were 2 reasons city-states waged war with each other?
To enlarge their farm land
To get rights to use the water supply
Why did the city-states of Sumer need to provided stronger leadership?
They needed to have ONE government.
What kind of government did Sumerian city-states form to provide stronger leadership?
They created the Monarchy
Who was Gilgamesh and when did he rule?
He was a Sumerian king in 2700-2750BC. He ruled Uruk. Legends said he was 1/3 man and 2/3 god.
What effect did a food surplus have on life in Sumer?
Led to a division of labor. Some could farm and others could be metal workers, merchants, and managers.
Sumer merchants traded with merchants throughout what area?
the Fertile Crescent
What 3 things did Sumerians trade that they had in surplus
What 5 resources did the Sumerians get that they needed?
raw copper and tin
What were the 3 social classes in Sumer (and who were some of those people)
1. Kings priests and other important people
2. Middle class: Merchants, managers, carpenters, doctors, brick-layers, potters and scribes
What kind of roles di Sumerian women fill
religious leaders and scribes. Also store owners, tavern keepers, bakers, brewers, midwives, textile manufacturers
Name 4 innovations developed by the Sumerians
1. Need to mark boundaries for farming led to a unit of land measurement called the IKU (now called the acre).
2. Need to measure wheat and barley led to the QUART as a unit of measurement
3. Need to carry trade goods up river led to people building CARGO BOATS WITH SAILS
4. Need to keep a record of ownership, trade and taxes led to CUNEIFORM
wedge shaped symbols where each symbol stands for a different syllable and was based on spoken sound.