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Flashcards in Social Studies Chapter 2 Test Review Deck (23):

What are the natural borders of Mesopotamia

Mediterranean Sea on west
Persian Gulf on Southeast
Taurus Mountains on northwest
Zagros Mountains on east
Lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers


What is the climate of Mesopotamia

Soil is dry. Weather is hot. Rivers are unpredictable


How did the Sumerians handle the climate and flooding problems

They developed a system of irrigation to get river waters to their fields at the right time


What are the 2 improvements made to Mesopotamia by Assyrians

They made roads and improved the buildings in Nineveh. They worked to bring the people of their many lands together.


What were the city-states and how were they governed?

A city state included a city and the farm land around it. Each city-state had its own leaders and own government.


How did irrigation help the people of Mesopotamia?

Helped farmers prevent and control flooding. The water could be stored because it hardly rained between the rivers. Irrigation protected the villages from floods.


Why were Abraham, Isaac and Ishmael important?

Abraham was loyal to one God.
Isaac was the father of the Jewish people.
Ishmael was the father of the Arab people.


What is cuneiform?

It was wedge shaped symbols. Each symbol stood for a different symbol and was based on spoken sound. Used by the Sumerians.


Who is Gilgamesh and why is he important?

He is a king of Uruk from 2700-2500BC . He went on a quest for immortality and failed. He was thought to be 1/3 man and 2/3 god.


What are 2 reasons that city-states aged wars on outsiders and on each other?

To get water rights and to defend or enlarge their farmland


What are the 7 characteristics of a civilization

Social structure Writing Culture Technology
Stable food supply Religion Government


The 10 Commandments became an important part of what 3 religions?



How was Israel divided after Solomon's time?

It was divided into 2 parts:
The northern part: made up of 10 of the 12 tribes and was called Israel
The southern part: made up of 2 tribes and was called Judah.


After Judah was conquered by the Romans, what important event happened to the land around Judaea about 130AD?

The Romans ordered the Judaeans to leave Jerusalem. Judaea and the land around became Palestine.


Who were Israel's first and second kings?

Saul was the first king around 1020BC
David was the second king


What important contribution did the Phoenicians make, and what was the importance of the contribution?

They simplified the alphabet- making it just 22 letters. This made it easier for people to read and write. This was used to record trade agreements and write bills.


What is barter and what contribution did the Lydians make to the civilization of this region?

Barter is the exchange of goods or service for another. The Lydians were the first people to use coined money put out by their government. It allowed traders to use set prices for goods and services.


Why is Sargon and why is he important?

First known conqueror in Mesopotamia. He was the first emperor of the region.


Who was Gilgamesh

A king who ruled over the Sumerian city-state of Uruk between 2700-2500BC. Thought to be 1/3 man and 2/3 god. Stories about him were written down about 2500BC.


Who was Hammurabi?

King of the city-state of Babylon. He created a large empire. He made sure all people paid their share of taxes. He made the Code of Hammurabi- a collection of laws.


Explain the code of Hammurabi? Who and what it protected, punished?

282 laws that dealt with almost all parts of daily life: marriage, divorce, slaves, murder, stealing, land, loans, process, wages, military service.
It set a standard for punishment- called an eye for and eye. This was more fair.


What did Hammurabi mean by equal justice?

Fair treatment under the law. It is limited to equality within a social class.


Who was Cyrus

Cyrus the Great. Founder of the Achamenid Empire. He conquered the Lydians, the Medians, and the Babylonians. Founder of the oldest known declaration of Human rights.