what are they made of?
- sucrose (glucose + fructose) alpha 1- beta 2
- lactose (galactose + glucose) beta 1-4
- maltose (glucose + glucose) alpha 1-4
what’s special about the lactose bond?
the beta 1-4 bond cannot be hydrolyzed by humans except the lactose specific one
glycogen and starch are similar how? different how?
both comprised of many glucose molecules, alpha 1-4 chains with alpha 1-6 branch points
glycogen is mamillian starch
starch- more highly branched
breaks down to fructose NOT glucose
found in tubers
insoluble fiber bc humans can’t break down beta 1-4 bonds
order of carbohydrate digestion (enzyme release and location)
- pancreatic enzymes
- brush border enzymes (intestinal enzymes)
glucose and galactose have what in common?
they share a transporter (Na+ cotransporter)
fructose has it’s own transporter
where does the TCA/Krebs/citric acid cycle occur the most?
what is the starting point of the TCA cycle?
what is the finishing point of the TCA cycle?
Citrate has how many carbons?
Oxaloacetate has how many carbons?
used in dehydrogenase rxn