goes inside head and doesn’t branch until much later
- not blood supply to anything in face or head and neck
arterial vs venus system
venus goes here and there
branches of external carotid
Some Anatomists like Fucking, Others Prefer S&M
- Sup thyroid
- Asc pharyngeal
- Posterior Auricular artery
- Superficial temporal
terminal branches of external carotid
superficial temporal artery
Are communicating arteries blood supply?
When internal carotid finally branches what does it branch to?
Where is dividing line between circle of willis and vertebral basilar system?
Post cerebral and superior cerebellar
where do vertebral arteries come from?
What do vertebral arteries go through?
C6 foramen to C1
out atlantooccipital junction
spinal arteries are branches of what?
everything else branches off what?
berry aneurism: which arteries
sudden excruciating HA
AVM: which arteries
may occur anywhere
When does Hypertensive encephalopathy occur?
diastolic BP above 120
confusion, drowsiness, ha, nausea
liver and kidney can’t get rid of toxins
deepest jugular vein that drains everything inside and most outside head
external jugular drains what?
backside of skull
confluens of sinuses
transverse sinus, superior and inferior saggital sinuses come together here
confluens forms what?
inion (bump on back of head)
most of brain blood comes from
cavernous sinus and pterygoid plexus are what and what can they cause?
communicating areas with external face and neck
infections leading to encephalitis
cowdry bodies common in
negri bodies common in
intracranial pressure leads to
too much pressure going in
brain hypoxic and acidotic = brain damage
*common after injury, radiation, long term HTN
carbon dioxide buildup =
acidosis which can lead to necrosis
low O2/low pH =
superior oblique muscle
mneumonic for cranial nerves sensory or motor
Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Be Brave Marry Me ***B = mixed
what does CN 12 do?
motor to tongue
What does CN 11 do?
motor to trap and SCM
What does CN5 do?
feels the face, chews
What does CN6 do?
What does CN 7 do?
moves face, taste, cry, salivate
What does CN9 do?
taste, saliva, swallow, baroreceptors
What does CN10 do?
taste, swallow, talk, lift palate
Nuclei distribution for PONs
Nuclei distribution for Midbrain
Nuclei distribution for Medulla
Nuclei distribution for diencephalon
what order does brainstem go in?
top down: midbrain pons medulla spinal cord
sense of touch inside nose
anosmia due to
noxious chemicals or tumors or fractures of cribriform plate
sense of smell uses
smell = cAMP vision = cGMP
where are cones/ high sensitive area?
fovea of macula
embryonically, eye grows out of
outer area, CT/same as dura
all of nerve fibers, receptive tissue
retina (same as brain)
blood vessels of eye are in
choroid (same as arachnoid)
lens is a ___ muscle and it gets ___ when pull it
when ciliary muscle contracts it goes from ____ to ___
relaxed ciliary muscle associated with ______ vision and when it is contracted it is associated with ____ vision.
thin to plump
aqueos humor is the same as and drains where?
extracellular fluid with no blood, etc.
canal of flegm
afferent vs efferent
afferent: coming in
efferenet: going out
disease with degeneration of pigment cell layer that leads to blindness
light goes in, but can’t see
lesion at chiasm
optic nerve problem before pathways cross leads to
complete blindness in that eye
lesion behind chiasm
homonomous hemianopsia (seen in brain tumor patients)
where are cones
fovea of macula
central (rods periphery)
make you see color (cones = color)
parasympathetic activity of eye nemonic
(beauty under a bright light) = small pupil, thick lens contracted muscle constricted pupil fatter lens near sight
relaxed ciliary muscle
facial nerve does more than facial expression
motor to post digastric and strapedius
What are first and second holes that facial nerve goes through?
1st: internal acustic meatus
2nd: styloid mastoid foramen
who goes through styloid mastoid foramen?
motor branch of facial nerve
styloid mastoid foramen is important for which disease?
bells paulsy (all branches involved)
***which cranial nerves are involved with anterior and posterior tongue taste?
ant: 7 taste (5 for touch)
post: 9 is back two thirds taste and touch
**what muscle is innervated by CN9?
what hole does CN9 go through?
medulla through foramen to target areas
what nerve operates parotid gland?
ability of tongue to touch roof of mouth is what CN?
CN10 (every other motion of tongue is CN12)
salty, sweet, sour, bitter are innervated with which CNs?
7 because they are tasted on anterior tongue
sour and bitter are 9 (post)
looking out of a train
- nystagmus improves image
move head to quickly or put cold water in ear
most common cause of pathologic nystagmus
horizontal nystagmus due to vestibular nerve swelling (hearing and balance issues)
intracellular (K rich)
extracellular (Na rich)
organ of corti
in basilar membrane
perilymph and endolymph associated
lateral and medial geniculate bodies
auditory is medial (internal)
vision is lateral (external)
CN 9 is sensory
CN 10 motor
speech is which CN?
CN 12 (hypoglossal)
sensory aphasia (word salad) - difficulty understanding written/spoken language
- understanding is intact
parasympathetic ganglia come from
sympathetic ganglia come from
from thoracic nerve roots
- goes to heart and bronchi
from chest through half of abdomen have
vagal influence: parasympathetic
sexual response cycle uses
both parasympathetic (arousal) and sympathetic (climax) - all come from lower sacral nerve roots
sympathetic bronchial response
constricts with parasympathetic
saliva secretion is
how does PNS interact with spinal cord?
sensory input from dorsal horn
motor input from ventral
what horn is involved with Polio?
sensory dorsal horn issues
grey matter and white in spinal cord
grey synaptic in center
white is outer tracts
spinal level reflexes
C-5 bicep C-6 brachioradialis C-7 triceps C-8 finger flex L-4 patellar L-5 foot
fiber types A- alpha B- beta A- gamma A- delta B C
A- alpha: biggest fastest (motor neurons)
B- beta: touch and pressure
A- gamma: slower motorneurons
A- delta: touch, pressure, fast, pain
B: preganglionic autonomic fibers
C: smallest slowest (yes or no) pain and temp
Golgi Tendon Organ
measures tension and inhibits alpha to protect against over stretch
lower sensitivity: anything shared with dorsal column:
- crude touch
- tickle and itch
- sexual sensation
Upper vs lower motor neurons
UMN defects (hyper): spastic paralysis, hyerreflexia, pos babinski LMN (hypo): atrophy, flaccid paralysis, fibrillations, hyporeflexia, neg babinksi
what are the 3 sensory pathways?
spinothalamic: pain and temp
fasciculus cuneatus, gracilis: concious proprioception
spinothalamic and medial leminiscus: light touch
anything with the word thalamus
hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalmus
fast vs slow pain fibers
slow: end at diencephalon
fast: sensory humunculus (give specific info)
what can cross BBB?
lipid soluble, gases, water
BBB maintains constant env for neurons, prevents escape of neurotransmitters.
extracellular fluid and plasma
created by choroid plexus
what amino acid does the main membrane transport system use?
what hormones enhance cellular AA uptake?
GH and insulin
glutamate and aspartate
GABA glycine serine alanine cystathione
brain transmitter uppers
serotonin ACTH norepi epi dopamine glycine (also downer)
GABA nitric oxide histamine neurosteroids glycine (also upper)
primary sulfur containing amino acids and
what does it do?
helps make glutathione and taurine
what form of sulfur is toxic?
sulfite (not sulfate)
sulfate used in brain to get rid of junk
What helps get rid of sulfites by turning them into sulfate?
Methylation or methyl step involves what?
folic acid and B12
what enzyme creates and enzyme that breaks down acetyl choline
acetylcholine esterase breaks down
reason muscle don’t go into muscle tetany
most pesticides are
choline esterase inhibitors
would cause prolonged muscle tetany
tryptophan makes _____ by hydroxylating tryptophan with _____
** Seratonin can be turned into _____ in the diencephalon
- depression = can’t sleep either because no seratonin = no melatonin
tryptophan is ____ dependent
deficiency in ____ can lead to seratonin deficiency
circadian rhythm is driven by?
suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus which receives input from retina.
primary circadian rhythm hormones
What leads to cortisol surge?
What leads to melatonin release?
- low light leads to increased activity of retina-hypothalamic pathway which leads to pineal gland melatonin release
high doses of corticosteroids leads to
sleeplessness (brain thinks it is awake constantly)
***phenylalanine converts to? what enzyme is used?
tyrosine phenylalanine hydroxylase (deficeint in children with phenylketonuria (PKU))
number one cause of mental retardation?
caused by what?
deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase
tyrosine is used for:
base for thyroid hormone syntheses
used in TCA cycle for energy
hydroxylated to L-DOPA and then to Dopamine
difference between PNS and CNS catecholamine producing neurotransmitters
N-Methyl-Transferase (final step for formation of EPI)
L-Dopa to Dopamine is dependent on what?
B6 and B1
Dopamine to NE inhibited by and stimulated by?
inhibited by: gluatathione, cysteine, B-5
stimulated by: copper and vit c
If you don’t get rid of catecholamines what happens
What disease has this?
go into hyper metabolic state
(increased HR, manic/psychotic rage, PNS breaks down)
Two enzyme reactions critical for getting rid of catecholamines
VMA (most important intermediate) tested in urine to see if overproducing catecholamines.
what is tested in urine to see if overproducing catecholamines?
what is donor of NO and what enzyme
NO associated with
what does it do?
vascular smooth muscle dilation (control HTN, erectile tissues, etc) dependent on GMP
histadine is bioconverted to ____ using ____
B1 and histadine decarboxylase
purposes of histamine
peripherally: part of cytokine system to trigger immune response (good)
first step to get histamine out of the body
2) MAO (monoamine oxydase: also used to get rid of catecholamines, seratonin, etc.)
3) removed through liver
what converts glutamine to GABA?
why is this important
GABA decarboxylase (B1 dependent) important because GABA (primary inhibitory neurotransmitter) is formed by same thing that makes glutamate (primary excitatory neurotransmitter)
basal nuclei do what?
filter info to and from motor cortex
talk to cerebellum
= purposeful normal movement
- balance and eye movement coordination
- planning and initiation of movement
- synergy, which controls rate, force, range of movement
diseases from basal nuclei
parkinsons and hutingtons
jerky uncontrolled movements
progress to death
Parkinson’s is damage to
substantia nigra (dopaminergic system) festinating gait, cog-wheel rigidity, pill-rolling, resting tremor autoimmune or drug-induced
loss of UMN or LMN muscle atrophy weakness hyper-reflexia death due to resp complication
most common organisms for 0-4 weeks infxn
Group B strep, E. coli, Listeria
most common organism 4 weeks->50
difference between encephalitis and meningitis
presence of neurologic deficit in encephalitis due to inflammation of brain
clinical signs of brain tumors
drowsiness, lethargy, personality changes, psychosis, seizures, HA, N/V, papilledema (same for most issues with brain)
** new seizures could be due to tumor
all called astrocytomas up to grade 3. glioblastoma multiforme (grade 4 astrocytoma): most common brain tumors of adults
peripheral nerve tumors
schwannoma = benign
acoustic neuroma = CN8
neurofibroma = benign if solitary
neurofibromatosis = autosomal dominant (Von Recklinghausens)
MS is biggest: glove and stalking parasthesias (CNS)
Guillain-Barre Syndrome (PNS): first flu-like illness, then ascending paralysis
Dysmyelination disorders (CNS)
B1 deficiency due to alcoholism
dementia, dermatitis, diarrhea, death (4D’s)
Pellegra/niacin def (B3)
*used to be mental hospitals filled with people who just had B3 deficiency
macrocytic anemia, degeneration of spinal cord, not cured by folate
vit B12 def
folate does not cure what in B12 def
diffuse cortical atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaques in cortex, abnormal tau proteins, microglia, astrocytes
lysosomal storage disease progressive neurodegenerative disorder paralysis, dementiamia, seizures follow dev retardation def of hexosaminidase A death by age 4
- def of what enzyme in Tay-Sachs
lack of what enzyme in PKU
toxic levels of copper storage
liver, brain, eye (Kaiser-Fleisher rings)