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Flashcards in Anemia 1 Deck (17):
1

Investigating Anemia: 3 basic principles?

Where is the problem (primary bone marrow or peripheral)? Other cell counts? Consider patient - age, demographics, urgency of tests.

2

Blood cells under normal conditions: life cycle and time line?

production in bone marrow, release into peripheral blood, senescence. RBC: 120 days, platelet: 7 - 10 days, neutrophil: 6-8 hours

3

What causes blood cells to be low in number: 2 main pathological categories

Intrinsic bone marrow problem: inadequate blood cell production. Increased, loss, destruction or sequestration aka extrinsic/peripheral problems.

4

If more cell lines are affected, then what is more likely?

Problem is with bone marrow production

5

pancytopenia

deficiency of all three cellular components of blood: RBCs, WBCs and platelets, like in acute leukemia

6

What 2 observations make it more likely that it is a primary bone marrow problem?

Pancytopenia. Abnormal immature cells in blood

7

Anemia: definition? diagnosis?

a condition marked by a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weariness. NOT a diagnosis.

8

Anemia: what concentrations of Hb?

<130 g/L males. <120 g/L females

9

Anemia symptoms and signs depend on? (4)

Severity, rapidity of onset, age of patient, comorbid medical conditions

10

Classification of anemia according to MCV

less than 80 microcytic. normal 80 - 100 fL. more than 100 is macrocytic.

11

Causes of microcytic anemia (5)

TAILS: thalassemia trait, anemia of inflammation, iron deficiency, lead poisoning, sideroblastic anemia.

12

Causes of macrocytic anemia (6)

FAT RBC: vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, high reticulocyte counts, liver disease, alcohol (drugs or toxins), myelodysplasia, hypothyroidism

13

myelodysplasia

primary bone marrow problem characterized by ineffective blood cell synthesis: can involve one, two or all three cell lines

14

General pathophysl of microcytic anemia: why small?

problem with Hb: too little Hb = smaller packaging with less content in each cell

15

Iron def: pathophysl

not enough iron to make heme

16

thalassaemia trait: pathophysls

not enough globin chains to make Hb

17

anemia of inflammation: pathophysl

iron present, but not readily available for use