Flashcards in Anemia 1 Deck (17):
Investigating Anemia: 3 basic principles?
Where is the problem (primary bone marrow or peripheral)? Other cell counts? Consider patient - age, demographics, urgency of tests.
Blood cells under normal conditions: life cycle and time line?
production in bone marrow, release into peripheral blood, senescence. RBC: 120 days, platelet: 7 - 10 days, neutrophil: 6-8 hours
What causes blood cells to be low in number: 2 main pathological categories
Intrinsic bone marrow problem: inadequate blood cell production. Increased, loss, destruction or sequestration aka extrinsic/peripheral problems.
If more cell lines are affected, then what is more likely?
Problem is with bone marrow production
deficiency of all three cellular components of blood: RBCs, WBCs and platelets, like in acute leukemia
What 2 observations make it more likely that it is a primary bone marrow problem?
Pancytopenia. Abnormal immature cells in blood
Anemia: definition? diagnosis?
a condition marked by a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weariness. NOT a diagnosis.
Anemia: what concentrations of Hb?
<130 g/L males. <120 g/L females
Anemia symptoms and signs depend on? (4)
Severity, rapidity of onset, age of patient, comorbid medical conditions
Classification of anemia according to MCV
less than 80 microcytic. normal 80 - 100 fL. more than 100 is macrocytic.
Causes of microcytic anemia (5)
TAILS: thalassemia trait, anemia of inflammation, iron deficiency, lead poisoning, sideroblastic anemia.
Causes of macrocytic anemia (6)
FAT RBC: vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, high reticulocyte counts, liver disease, alcohol (drugs or toxins), myelodysplasia, hypothyroidism
primary bone marrow problem characterized by ineffective blood cell synthesis: can involve one, two or all three cell lines
General pathophysl of microcytic anemia: why small?
problem with Hb: too little Hb = smaller packaging with less content in each cell
Iron def: pathophysl
not enough iron to make heme
thalassaemia trait: pathophysls
not enough globin chains to make Hb