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Flashcards in Anesthesiology Final Exam Material Deck (122)
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61

Horse dystocia is a serious emergency. About how long after membrane rupture are foals delivered?

30 minutes

Foals normally delivered <30 mins after membrane rupture. Almost none survive >90 mins

62

T/F: Thermotherapy is generally indicated in the acute inflammatory phase

False

Thermotherapy is indicated for patients with chronic pain.

It is contraindicated during acute inflammation, over an area of hemorrhage or thrombophlebitis, or over malignant tissue 

63

T/F: Alfaxalone has been shown to be safe and effective for C-section in dogs

True

64

T/F: Both inspiration and exhalation are an active process in birds and reptiles

True

65

 You take a blood gas analysis of your patient and the PaCO2 is 20 mmHg. Is your patient hypoventilating, ventilating normally, or hyperventilating?

hyperventilating

Normal range for PaCO2 is 35-45 mmHg

66

When is cryotherapy used?

during the acute inflammatory phase

For post-operative pain or after exercise; reduces inflammation, edema, and pain􏰃 -> improves mobility, minimizes hematoma formation and reduces muscle spasm 

67

Would you recommend using an induction agent in a patient with GDV?

Yes

Propofol or alphaxalone at low doses

Ketamine + benzodiazepine can be used too

68

What is the preferred reversal agent for high-potency opioids?

Naltrexone

Naltrexone is preferred due to long duration of action (helps prevent renarcotization)

Naloxone is shorter acting

69

What sedatives would you want to avoid in patients with hepatic disease?

acepromazine and alpha-2 agonists

 

  • Acepromazine: hypotension, inhibition of platelet-aggregation
  • Alpha-2 agonist: plasma glucose, peripheral blood flow alterations 

70

During low-level laser therapy, protective eye gear must be worn to prevent:

retina damage

71

Static Magnetic Field Therapy is contraindicated in patients with:

pacemakers!

A continuous magnetic field provided by magnets embedded in wraps, collar, or pet beds that is thought to increase local blood flow and perhaps release endorphins and have antiinflammatory effects 

72

Why do you want to avoid stress in a patient with renal disease?

Stress leads to catecholamine release, which ↓RBF, ↓GFR, ↓ urine production 

Also, release of aldosterone, renin, and vasopressin (contributing further to these issues) 

73

What nerve should be blocked when repairing an eyelid laceration?

Supraorbital nerve

***NOTE: The auriculopalpebral nerve block does not desensitize the eyelids!! It only paralyzes them***

74

Why is electroacupuncture contraindicated in the ventral neck?

You don't want to hit the carotid bodies

75

When vasopressors are administered to a patient, what happens to the patient's heart rate?

reflex bradycardia

76

Treatment with __________ for 6-12 weeks to reduce total thyroxine to reference range before thyroidectomy significantly reduces perioperative mortality

methimazole

77

Why should you avoid using ketamine in a geriatric cat with confirmed or suspected heart disease?

can precipitate CHF

78

Use of the body’s endogenous and restorative analgesic mechanisms to treat disease and pain is termed:

Neuromodulation

79

Pregnant patients have increased volume of epidural blood vessels and increased epidural fat.

What effect is this going to have on the epidural space and the cranial spread of drugs?

This will DECREASE the epidural space and INCREASE the cranial spread of drugs

A more cranial spread of local anesthetic leads to hypotension. Therefore, epidural drug volume should be decreased by ~1/3 in pregnant patients

80

In equine patients, MAP should remain above ______ to avoid postanesthetic myopathy

70 mmHg

Neonatal foals have lower BP than adults due to decreased vascular tone, so a MAP of 40-60 mmHg is acceptable

81

When handling rabbits and rodents, it is important to support:

 abdomen and hind limbs

Otherwise they can fracture their spines and you'll be "that guy" for the remainder of your veterinary career

Lift rat supporting hind quarters with 1 hand, and other one supporting head with thumb under forelimb and mandible 

82

Epidural drug volume should be decreased by ~_____ in pregnant patients

~1/3

A more cranial spread of local anesthetic leads to hypotension. Therefore, epidural drug volume should be decreased by ~1/3 in pregnant patients

83

Propofol is the preferred induction agent in many small reptiles. What is the most common adverse affect associated with propofol use in reptiles?

apnea

 

84

Why do we avoid halothane in patients with hepatic disease?

decreases hepatic blood flow and up to 20% is metabolited by the liver

There is also a hepatotoxic metabolite (trifluroacetate) formed under hypoxic conditions 

85

How many complete cycles of inspiration and expiration are needed to exchange inhaled gas in birds?

Two

86

Ideally for an elective procedure, stabilize a hypothyroid patient with __________ for 1-2 weeks

thyroxine

87

Opioids are okay to use in patients with hepatic disease, but WHY should you avoid morphine if possible?

histamine release

histamine release can lead to hypotension, which can reduce hepatic blood flow

88

Negative inotropic drugs should be avoided in hypothyroid patients to prevent: 

severe hypotension

89

T/F: LRS is the fluid of choice for use in reptiles

False

AVOID LACTATED RINGERS. There is potential for prolonged half-life of lactate in reptiles

90

T/F: Calcium and energy excess and rapid growth are known risk factors for developmental orthopedic disease in dogs with a genetic risk 

True