Name the only reptile with a 4 chambered heart:
Most similar to mammalian
They also have a foramen connecting L & R aortic arches that carries unmixed oxygenated blood from lungs
T/F: Stress response can exacerbate conditions such as CHF and acute renal failure
Why do you want to avoid alpha2 and opioid drugs in patients with problems in their oral cavity and pharynx?
They induce emesis!
If you have a patient with problems in their oral cavity and pharynx, you do NOT want that patient to vomit.
If you have to give opioids, a good way around this is to wait until your patient is intubated or give IV (risk of vomiting is very low with administration of opioids IV)
What are the general goals for anesthetic management in a patient with diabetes mellitus?
prevent hypoglycemia at all times, prevent prolonged or severe hyperglycemia (and development of ketoacidosis), and maintain normal fluid and electrolyte balance
If tachycardia and arrhythmias are not controlled in a patient with hyperthyroidism, what drug should be given 3-5 days prior to surgery?
atenolol (6.25 mg/cat PO SID)
Enkephalins bind __________ @ inhibitory interneurons in substantia gelatinosa of dorsal horn↑ GABA et al. in SC
How does PaO2 of geriatric animals compare to that of normal adult animals?
Geriatric animals generally have decreased PaO2
Why might it be difficult to place a jugular catheter in a camel?
thick skin (especially males), no jugular groove, close proximity of jugular vein to carotid artery, etc.
Describe what is occurring in this ECG:
How much and how fast can you safely give potassium?
T/F: Epinephrine can cause severe vasoconstriction and can lead to decreased perfusion of tisues
What induction agent causes heinz body anemia in cats?
How many air sacs do birds have?
- 2 cervical
- 1 clavicular
- 2 cranial thoracic
- 2 caudal thoracic
- 2 abdominal
Which nerve(s) need(s) to be blocked when dehorning a goat?
Cornual br. of infratrochlear nerve and cornual br. of zygomaticotemporal nerve
Note that this is different than in the cow! In the cow, only ONE nerve needs to be blocked.
What differences do we see in birds compared to mammals with regard to the epiglottis?
Birds don't have an epiglottis
Birds have an easily visualized glottis @ base of tongue
When anesthetizing a patient with cardiovascular disease it is important to manage arrhythmias according to severity and nature of the CV disease.
If you have a cat with HCM, what drug should you have available?
Something like esmolol
T/F: Severely injured patients will have higher resting energy requirements
(maybe 2x RER)
How long should medium-sized avian patients be fasted prior to anesthesia?
To AVOID regurgitation, aspiration, esophagitis, but do NOT fast avian patients < 200g
Where do you gain IV access in a snake?
Jugular vein or palatine vessel
Renal Blood Flow (RBF) is autoregulated in MAP range of _________ mmHg
So any patient with renal disease needs a minimum MAP of 80mmHg!
What is the normal PaO2 range for arterial blood on 100% O2?
Which lung is vestigial in snakes?
LEFT (except boas and pythons)
RIGHT lung continues into air sac
T/F: Malignant hyperthermia is caused by a mutation in one gene that controls sodium metabolism in the muscle
Malignant hyperthermia is caused by a mutation in one gene (Porcine ryanodine receptor 1 gene) that controls calcium metabolism in the muscle
In a patient with diabetes mellitus, how often should you measure blood glucose during anesthesia?
every 30 minutes
Measure blood glucose every 30 minutes during anesthesia and once in recovery
Maintain BG between 150-250 mg/dL
Which jugular vein is used for IV fluids in birds?
If you use the left jugular, provide 24 hour monitoring to avoid fatal hemorrhage
T/F: Charcoal absorption systems are useful because they absorb halogenated anesthetic gases, N2O, and CO2
Charcoal absorption systems absorb halogenated gases (iso, sevo, des), but do NOT absorb N2O or CO2
In CNS patients under anesthesia, you want to maintain PaCO2 at approximately:
T/F: Induction drugs have no effect on neuromuscular blockades
Induction drugs (Propofol, ketamine, thiopental) have minor enhancement effect on NMB
When managing a patient with diabetes mellitus under anesthesia, it is ideal to maintain BG between _____ and _____ mg/dL
When managing a patient with diabetes mellitus under anesthesia, it is ideal to maintain BG between 150 and 250 mg/dL
Can administer 2.5% or 5% dextrose as needed to prevent hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia can lead to brain damage that is not apparent until after anesthesia!
What is your ECG diagnosis?