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Flashcards in Anesthesiology Final Exam Material Deck (122)
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91

Name the only reptile with a 4 chambered heart:

Crocodile

Most similar to mammalian

They also have a foramen connecting L & R aortic arches that carries unmixed oxygenated blood from lungs 

92

T/F: Stress response can exacerbate conditions such as CHF and acute renal failure

True

93

Why do you want to avoid alpha2 and opioid drugs in patients with problems in their oral cavity and pharynx?

They induce emesis!

If you have a patient with problems in their oral cavity and pharynx, you do NOT want that patient to vomit.

If you have to give opioids, a good way around this is to wait until your patient is intubated or give IV (risk of vomiting is very low with administration of opioids IV)

94

What are the general goals for anesthetic management in a patient with diabetes mellitus?

prevent hypoglycemia at all times, prevent prolonged or severe hyperglycemia (and development of ketoacidosis), and maintain normal fluid and electrolyte balance 

95

If tachycardia and arrhythmias are not controlled in a patient with hyperthyroidism, what drug should be given 3-5 days prior to surgery?

atenolol (6.25 mg/cat PO SID)

96

Enkephalins bind __________ @ inhibitory interneurons in substantia gelatinosa of dorsal horn↑ GABA et al. in SC 

delta

97

How does PaO2 of geriatric animals compare to that of normal adult animals?

Geriatric animals generally have decreased PaO2

 

98

Why might it be difficult to place a jugular catheter in a camel?

thick skin (especially males), no jugular groove, close proximity of jugular vein to carotid artery, etc.

99

Describe what is occurring in this ECG: 

Electrical alternans

100

How much and how fast can you safely give potassium?

0.5 mg/kg/hr

101

T/F: Epinephrine can cause severe vasoconstriction and can lead to decreased perfusion of tisues

True

102

What induction agent causes heinz body anemia in cats?

Propofol

103

How many air sacs do birds have?

Nine

  • 2 cervical
  • 1 clavicular
  • 2 cranial thoracic
  • 2 caudal thoracic
  • 2 abdominal

104

Which nerve(s) need(s) to be blocked when dehorning a goat?

Cornual br. of infratrochlear nerve and cornual br. of zygomaticotemporal nerve

Note that this is different than in the cow! In the cow, only ONE nerve needs to be blocked.

105

What differences do we see in birds compared to mammals with regard to the epiglottis?

Birds don't have an epiglottis

Birds have an easily visualized glottis @ base of tongue 

106

When anesthetizing a patient with cardiovascular disease it is important to manage arrhythmias according to severity and nature of the CV disease.

If you have a cat with HCM, what drug should you have available?

beta-blocker

Something like esmolol 

107

T/F: Severely injured patients will have higher resting energy requirements

True

(maybe 2x RER) 

108

How long should medium-sized avian patients be fasted prior to anesthesia?

2-4 hours

To AVOID regurgitation, aspiration, esophagitis, but do NOT fast avian patients < 200g 

109

Where do you gain IV access in a snake?

Jugular vein or palatine vessel

110

Renal Blood Flow (RBF) is autoregulated in MAP range of _________ mmHg 

80-180 mmHg

So any patient with renal disease needs a minimum MAP of 80mmHg!

111

What is the normal PaO2 range for arterial blood on 100% O2?

~500 mmHg

112

Which lung is vestigial in snakes?

LEFT (except boas and pythons)

RIGHT lung continues into air sac

113

T/F: Malignant hyperthermia is caused by a mutation in one gene that controls sodium metabolism in the muscle

False

Malignant hyperthermia is caused by a mutation in one gene (Porcine ryanodine receptor 1 gene) that controls calcium metabolism in the muscle 

114

In a patient with diabetes mellitus, how often should you measure blood glucose during anesthesia?

every 30 minutes

Measure blood glucose every 30 minutes during anesthesia and once in recovery 

Maintain BG between 150-250 mg/dL

115

Which jugular vein is used for IV fluids in birds?

RIGHT

If you use the left jugular, provide 24 hour monitoring to avoid fatal hemorrhage

116

T/F: Charcoal absorption systems are useful because they absorb halogenated anesthetic gases, N2O, and CO2

False

Charcoal absorption systems absorb halogenated gases (iso, sevo, des), but do NOT absorb N2O or CO2

117

In CNS patients under anesthesia, you want to maintain PaCO2 at approximately:

35 mmHg

118

T/F: Induction drugs have no effect on neuromuscular blockades

False

Induction drugs (Propofol, ketamine, thiopental) have minor enhancement effect on NMB

119

When managing a patient with diabetes mellitus under anesthesia, it is ideal to maintain BG between _____ and _____ mg/dL

When managing a patient with diabetes mellitus under anesthesia, it is ideal to maintain BG between 150 and 250 mg/dL

Can administer 2.5% or 5% dextrose as needed to prevent hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia can lead to brain damage that is not apparent until after anesthesia!

120

What is your ECG diagnosis?

atrial fibrillation