Flashcards in Animal Experiments Deck (21):
What is the guideline ethics and legislation?
If animals are confined, harmed, stressed or in pain, suffering should be minimised. Should justify the use of animals and replace them where possible e.g videos
What is the guideline species?
The chosen species should be the one least likely to suffer pain or distress. Must consider sentience, whether they are bred in captivity and experience of experiments
What is the guideline number of animals?
Only the minimum number of animals required should be used. Pilot studies should be used to achieve this.
What is the guideline procedures?
If death, disease, injury or distress is caused, design that enhances the animal's experience should be used. E.g naturally occuring or early enrichment vs deprivation
What does the guideline procedures refer to in terms of animal care?
Have a Home Office Licence, provision of proper daily care, have appropriate vetenary attention and be able to justify costs to the animals
What is the guideline reward, deprivation and aversive stimulation?
Plans of deprivation studies should consider normal feeding or drinking patterns e.g carnivores eat less frequently
What is the guideline isolation and crowding?
Caging conditions should depend on the social behaviour of the animals e.g isolation more distressing for social species. Overcrowding can cause aggression
What is the guideline aggression and predation?
Damage caused to an animal by another is still the responsibility of the researcher, should be avoided, if necessary barriers and escape routes should be available
What is the guideline wild animals?
Disturbance to free living animals should be minimised. The influence of observing, capturing and releasing should be considered in terms of the survival and reproduction of the species in terms of ecosystem
What is the guideline anaesthesia and euthanasia?
Animals should be protected from pain, e.g surgery, should be killed if enduring pain
What is the guideline suppliers?
All captive bred animals should be obatined from a reputable supplier
What is the guideline housing and care?
Between tests, animals should be housed with enough spcae to move freely and with sufficient food and water for its health and well being. Cage must be cleaned.
What did Hetherington and Ranson (1942) find as an example of an animal study?
Lesioned the hypothalamus of a rat and observed that it ate until it had trebled its body weight
P - How does a lifespan improve practicality?
Some animals have a shorter lifespan making it easier to assess the effects of early experience and the study of a whole lifespan quicker
P - Why can procedures be more feasible?
Small and easy to handle, can control the environment more than for humans, some procedures not suitable for humans
P - Why are they practical in terms of brain structure?
Some animals have a similar brain structure to humans, such as mice, value in studying them
P - Why are they not practical in terms of comparability to human lives?
Human lives are complex and factors rarely occur in isolation so not like real life, brains of animals not exactly the same
E - How are animal experiments ethical?
- Drugs have been developed due to them
- Can do things you can't do with humans
- Moral obligation to protect our own species
- Ethical guidelines in place
E - How are animal experiments unethical?
- Humans not more important than any other species
- Animals feel pain and become distressed
- Cost benefit analysis may be inappropriate - cost may not be known
C - How are animal experiments credible?
- Findings from animal studies can be applied to humans - limbic system in cats affects aggression, same in humans
- Can do more extensive research with animals that is well controlled