What are the causes of plantar fasciitis?
Frequent walking on hard floors
What is the treatment for plantar fasciitis?
Achilles and plantar fascia stretching exercises
Gel filled heel pad
What is hallux valgus?
Medial deviation of the 1st metatarsal causing deformity of the big toe
What are some of the problems caused by hallux valgus?
Lesser toe impingement
Pain, deformity, cosmesis
Formation of bunions and ulcers
What is the surgery for hallux valgus?
Multiple osteotomies to realign the bones
Soft tissue procedures to tighten slack tissues and release tight tissues
What is hallux rigidus?
OA of the 1st MTPj
What are some of the conservative treatment options for hallux rigidus?
Wearing of stiff soled shoe to limit motion at the MTPJ
Removal of osteophytes
What is the gold standard surgical treatment for hallux rigidus?
What is pes cavus?
Abnormally high arch of the foot often related to neuromuscular conditions
What is Morton's neuroma?
Degenerative fibrosis of common digital nerve near it’s bifurcation
How does Morton's neuroma present?
Pain in forefoot
Burning and tingling of toes
Which patients are most commonly affected by Morton's neuroma?
Women aged 45-50
What examination findings would implicate a Morton's neuroma?
Loss of sensation in affected web space
Medio‐lateral compression of the metatarsal heads (exerted by squeezing the forefoot with your hand) may reproduce symptoms or produce a characteristic "click"; this is Mulder's click test
What is the conservative management for Morton's neuroma?
Metatarsal pad or offloading insole
Steroid or anaesthetic injections
What is the surgical treatment for Morton's neuroma?
Excision of neuroma
What can be used to diagnose a Morton's neuroma?
Ultrasound - can see an inflamed nerve
What are the causes of Achilles tendonitis?
What is the treatment for Achilles tendonitis?
Splint or boot
Which patients tend to suffer from Achilles rupture?
Middle aged or older patients due to degenerative changes
What signs on examinaton would indicate an Achilles rupture?
Unable to bear weight
Weak plantar flexion
Palpable painful gap
Positive calf squeeze (Simmonds) test
What is the conservative management of Achilles rupture?
Cast for up to 8 weeks in the equinous position - plantarflexed foot with toes pointing downwards to close gap between ruptured tendon sides
Why do claw or hammer toes occur?
Imbalance of flexor and extensor mechanisms