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Flashcards in Ankle and foot orthopaedics and trauma Deck (52)
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31

What are the causes of plantar fasciitis?

Repetitive stress
Seronegative arthropathies

Diabetes

Obesity

Frequent walking on hard floors

Improper footwear

32

What is the treatment for plantar fasciitis?

Rest

Achilles and plantar fascia stretching exercises

Gel filled heel pad

NSAIDs

Corticosteroid injections

Usually self-limiting

33

What is hallux valgus?

Medial deviation of the 1st metatarsal causing deformity of the big toe

34

What are some of the problems caused by hallux valgus?

Transfer metatarsalgia
Lesser toe impingement
Pain, deformity, cosmesis
Shoe difficulties

Formation of bunions and ulcers
 

35

What is the surgery for hallux valgus?

Multiple osteotomies to realign the bones

Soft tissue procedures to tighten slack tissues and release tight tissues

36

What is hallux rigidus?

OA of the 1st MTPj

37

What are some of the conservative treatment options for hallux rigidus?

Wearing of stiff soled shoe to limit motion at the MTPJ

Removal of osteophytes

38

What is the gold standard surgical treatment for hallux rigidus?

Arthrodesis

39

What is pes cavus?

Abnormally high arch of the foot often related to neuromuscular conditions

40

What is Morton's neuroma?

Degenerative fibrosis of common digital nerve near it’s bifurcation
 

41

How does Morton's neuroma present?

Pain in forefoot

Burning and tingling of toes

42

Which patients are most commonly affected by Morton's neuroma?

Women aged 45-50

43

What examination findings would implicate a Morton's neuroma?

Loss of sensation in affected web space

Medio‐lateral compression of the metatarsal heads (exerted by squeezing the forefoot with your hand) may reproduce symptoms or produce a characteristic "click"; this is Mulder's click test

44

What is the conservative management for Morton's neuroma?

Metatarsal pad or offloading insole

Steroid or anaesthetic injections

45

What is the surgical treatment for Morton's neuroma?

Excision of neuroma

46

What can be used to diagnose a Morton's neuroma?

Ultrasound - can see an inflamed nerve

47

What are the causes of Achilles tendonitis?

Repetitive strain

Rheumatoid arthritis

Quinolone antibiotics

Gout

48

What is the treatment for Achilles tendonitis?

Rest

Physiotherapy

Heel raise

Splint or boot

Tendon decompression

 

49

Which patients tend to suffer from Achilles rupture?

Middle aged or older patients due to degenerative changes

50

What signs on examinaton would indicate an Achilles rupture?

Unable to bear weight
Weak plantar flexion
Palpable painful gap
Positive calf squeeze (Simmonds) test
 

51

What is the conservative management of Achilles rupture?

Cast for up to 8 weeks in the equinous position - plantarflexed foot with toes pointing downwards to close gap between ruptured tendon sides

52

Why do claw or hammer toes occur?

Imbalance of flexor and extensor mechanisms