Osteoarthritis Flashcards Preview

Musculoskeletal > Osteoarthritis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Osteoarthritis Deck (17):
1

What is osteoarthritis?

"Wear and tear" of joints - an imbalance between damage and repair of cartilage causing inflammation of joints

2

What are the four definitive features of OA that can be seen on Xray?

L – loss of joint space
O – osteophytes
S – sclerosis
S – subchondral cysts

3

What are osteophytes and how are they formed in OA?

Osteophytes are bony projections that form along joint margins
Formation occurs when broken cartilage is repaired incorrectly

4

What are some of the predisposing factors that contribute to development of OA?

Obesity
Mechanical injuries
High impact sports
Inflammatory arthritis
Female

5

What are the sites most commonly affected by OA?

Hands, knees, hips

6

Which joints in the hands tend to be affected by OA?

DIP, PIP and 1st CMC joints

7

What are baker's cysts?

Swelling and fluid collection in the back of the knee

8

What is the clinical presentation of OA?

Pain which is worse on activity and relieved by rest, stiffness

9

Where might pain in the hip caused by OA radiate to?

Groin
Knee

10

Where might pain in the hip be referred from?

Lower back

11

How might spinal sclerosis in OA present and why does this happen?

Pain in hips and upper thighs in a pattern similar to intermittent claudication
Due to nerve impingement

12

What are Heberden's nodes?

Hard or bony swellings that can develop in the distal interphalangeal joints in OA

13

What would be found in a joint affected by OA on examination?

Joint feels hard/bony and cool
Joint tenderness
Joint effusion
Crepitus
Bony enlargements due to osteophytes

14

What is the pathogenesis of OA?

There is loss of the matrix formed by chondrocytes in the cartilage, and release of cytokines (IL1, TNF) from the chondrocytes instead

15

What causes spinal stenosis?

Osteophyte formation on the lumbar spine encroaching on the spinal canal

16

What are some of the non-pharmacological treatments of OA?

Explanation - not because of overuse
Physiotherapy- muscle strengthening, proprioceptive
‘Common sense measures’ - weight loss exercise, trainers, walking stick

17

What are some of the pharmacological treatments of OA?

Analgesia – paracetamol, compound analgesics, topical anagesia
NSAIDs - may give additional symptomatic relief, consider risk/benefit ratio
Pain modulators – tricyclics eg. amitriptyline, anti-convulsants eg. gabapentin