Congenital and developmental disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Congenital and developmental disorders Deck (18):
1

What deformities come under 'limb malformations'?

Extra bones
Absent bones
Short/hypoplastic bones
Fusions of bones and/or soft tissues

2

What is the most common congenital malformation of the limbs?

Syndactyly
Two digits fused due to failure of separation of soft tissues

3

What is polydactyly?

When an extra digit is formed

4

What is fibular hemimelia?

A limb deficiency involving partial or complete absence of the fibula

5

What does fibular hemimelia cause?

Shortening of limb
Bowing of tibia
Ankle deformity

6

How are mild cases of fibular hemimelia best treated?

Limb lengthening with circular frame external fixator

7

How are severe cases of fibular hemimelia best treated?

Ankle amputation at 10months-2years old and use of below knee prosthetic limb

8

Other than fibular hemimelia, what are some other causes of congenital leg length inequality?

Deficiencies of proximal femur and tibia

9

What hand deformity can absence or hypoplasia of the radius cause?

Absence of thumb
Radial club hand

10

What is the most common congenital fusion?

Fusion of two of the tarsal bones of the foot - tarsal coalition

11

What complication might arise from tarsal coalition?

Painful flat feet

12

What is the incidence of obstetric brachial plexus palsy?

2 in 1000

13

In which babies is obstetric brachial plexus palsy more common?

Large babies (macrosomia in babies)
Twin deliveries
Shoulder dystocia

14

What is the name of the most common type of obstetric brachial plexus palsy and which nerves are injured?

Erb's palsy
C5 & C6

15

The injury to the nerve roots in Erb's palsy results in the loss of motor innervation of which muscles?

Deltoid
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Brachialis muscles
Biceps

16

What is Klumpke's palsy?

A rare type of obstetric brachial nerve palsy involving an injury much lower down, at nerve roots C8 & T1 caused by forceful adduction

17

Which position is the arm held in following an Erb's palsy?

"Waiters tip" position
Internal rotation of the humerus

18

What is the result of Klumpke's palsy?

Paralysis of the intrinsic hand muscles, finger and wrist flexors
Possible Horner's syndrome