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Flashcards in Anterior Triangle of Neck Deck (46):
1

Triangles of the neck

Sternocleidomastoid (SCM)

Divides anterior from posterior triangle

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Boundaries of the Anterior Triangle

Anterior border

Imaginary midline of neck

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Boundaries of the Anterior Triangle

Posterior border

Anterior border of SCM

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Boundaries of the Anterior Triangle

Base

Mandible

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Divisions of the Anterior Triangle

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Divisions of Anterior Triangle

Submental

Submental lymph nodes and beginning of anterior jugular vein

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Divisions of Anterior Triangle

Submandibular

Submandibular salivary gland, lymph nodes, fascial artery and vein, carotid sheath, hypoglossal nerve etc

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Divisions of Anterior Triangle

Carotid

Carotid sheath, branches of external carotid artery, internal jugular vein, hypoglossal accessory and vagus nerves etc

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Divisions of Anterior Triangle

Muscular

Sternohyoid and sternothyroid form the floor beneath which lies the thyroid gland, larynx, trachea and oesophagus

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Contents of Anterior Triangle

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Fascia of Anterior Neck

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Platysma

Attachments

From fascia above pectoralis major and clavicle to lateral neck and onto mandible

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Platysma

Innervation

Facial nerve CN VII

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Veins of Head/Neck

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Supra-hyoid muscles

Function 

Raise hyoid bone or depress mandible (mylohyoid and digastric)

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Supra-hyoid muscles

Innervation

Facial nerve - posterior belly of digastric and stylohyoid

Mandibular division of trigeminal CNV3 - anterior belly of digastric and mylohyoid

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Supra-hyoid muscles

Geniohyoid

Deep to mylohyoid - Innervated by C1 via hypoglossal CN XII

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Infrahyoid Muscles

Function

Depress hyoid bone

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Infrahyoid Muscles

Attachments

Indicated by names of muscles

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Infrahyoid Muscles

Innervation

Ansa cervialis except thyrohyoid (C1 via hypoglossal CN XII)

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Vasculature and Nerves

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Cervical Plexus

Root value

Anterior rami C1-4

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Cervical Plexus

Arrangement

Joined into loops which lie anterior to levator scapulae and scalenus medius

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Cervical Plexus

Covering

Formed by pre-vertebral layer of deep cervical fascia

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Cervical Plexus

Innervation provided

Somatic motor and sensory (plus sympathetic)

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Cervical Plexus

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Common Carotid Artery

Origin

LCA from arch of aortaRCA from brachiocephalic

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Common Carotid Artery

Branches

No branches except the terminal ones = inernal and external carotid

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Common Carotid Artery

Branches supply

Internal to brainExternal to head, face, neck

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Common Carotid Artery

.Location

Within carotid sheath with internal jugular vain and vagus nerve

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Carotid and Neighbours

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Branches of External Carotid

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Other Neck Vessels

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Vagus Nerve

Root Value

CN X

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Vagus Nerve

Route

Descends in carotid sheath. Has recurrent laryngeal branches to muscles of larynx - Left around arch of aorta and right around subclavian artery

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Vagus Nerve

Branches

Internal and external laryngeal. Travel through thoracic inlet into superior mediastinum - supply parasympathetic innervation to thorax and abdomen

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Structures in Neck

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Thyroid Gland

Type of secretion

Endocrine - regulates metabolic rate

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Thyroid Gland

Lobes

2 - Isthmus (over tracheal ring 2 or 3) and capsule

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Thyroid Gland

Covers

From lamina of thyroid cartilage down to 6th tracheal ring

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Thyroid Gland

Parathyroid glands

Embedded into posterior surface

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Thyroid Vasculature

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Submandibular Salivary Glands

Position

Inferior to mylohyoid, plus part in floor of mouth superior to mylohyoid

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Submandibular Salivary Glands

Openings

One duct either side opening between first and second lower incisiors either side of frenelum

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Submandibular Salivary Glands

Innervation

CN VII

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Thoracic Duct