Pharynx and Pre-vertebral Flashcards Preview

Gross Anatomy 2 > Pharynx and Pre-vertebral > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharynx and Pre-vertebral Deck (52):
1

Pharynx

Shape

Upper funnel end shaped at base of skull - joins oesophagus at C6

2

Pharynx

Mucous membrane

Nasal, mouth, larynx, tympanic cavity

3

Pharynx

Ciliated columnar epithelium

Superiorly to stratified squamous inferiorly

4

Pharynx

Fibrous layer

Under epithelium - connects to base of skull and into submucous coat of oesophagus

5

Pharynx

Muscular layer

Under fibrous layer and has almost circular constrictor muscles and longitudinal muscles

6

Pharynx Divisions

7

Nasopharynx

Position

Behind nasal cavities, above soft palate

8

Nasopharynx

Boundaries

Roof - Sphenoid, occipital and pharyngeal tonsil

Floor - Soft palate - pharyngeal isthmus

Anterior - Nasal passages

Posterior - Roof and CI level

Lateral - Auditory/Eustacian tube, salpingopharyngeal fold

9

Oropharynx

Position

From soft palate to upper border of epiglottis

10

Oropharynx

Boundaries

Roof - soft palate

Floor - Posterior third of tongue, lingual tonsil and glossoepigottic folds

Anterior - Mouth

Posterior - C2/3 level

Lateral - Palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal folds with palatine tonsil

11

Palatoglossus, palatine tonsil and palatopharyngeus

12

Laryngopharynx

Position

Behind larynx and laryngeal opening

13

Laryngopharynx

Boundaries

Anterior - Larynx

Posterior - C vertebrae 3-6

Lateral - Supported by thyroid cartilage, aryepiglottic fold and thyrohyoid membrane

14

Superior Constrictor

Attachments

Lower part (posterior) medial pterygoid plate, hamulus, pterygomandibular ligament, mandible, side of tongue

To pharyngeal tubercle of occipital bone, fibrous raphe and middle constrictor

15

Superior Constrictor

Function

Upper fibres pull posterior pharyngeal wall anteriorly to close off nasopharynx

Propel food to middle constrictor.

16

Superior Constrictor

Innervation

Pharyngeal plexus (vagus)

17

Middle Constrictor

Attachments

Lower part of the stylohyoid ligament to the greater and lesser cornua of the hyoid bone

To raphe but also blend with superior and inferior constrictor

18

Middle Constrictor

Function

Propel food towards inferior constrictor

19

Middle Constrictor

Innervation

Pharyngeal plexus (vagus)

20

Inferior Constrictor

Attachments

Lamina of thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage

To raphe and blend with middle constrictor and oesophagus

21

Inferior Constrictor

Functon

Propels food to oesophagus

22

Inferior Constrictor

Innervation

Pharyngeal plexus (vagus)

23

Inferior Constrictor

24

Longitudinal Muscles - Stylopharyngeus

Attachments

Base of styloid process of temporal bone to posterior border of thyroid cartilage, across the internal carotid artery.

Passes between superior and middle constrictors. 

25

Longitudinal Muscles - Stylopharyngeus

Function

Elevates larynx and pharynx during swallowing

26

Longitudinal Muscles - Stylopharyngeus

Innervation

Glossopharyngeal nerve

27

Longitudinal Muscles - Salpingopharyngeus

Attachments

 

Cartilage of auditory tube to blend with palatopharyngeus

28

Longitudinal Muscles - Salpingopharyngeus

Function

 

Elevates pharynx

29

Longitudinal Muscles - Salpingopharyngeus

Innervation

 

Pharyngeal plexus (vagus)

30

Longitudinal Muscles - Palatopharyngeus

Attachments

 

Hard palate and palatine aponeurosis to the lamina of thyroid cartilage (posterior)

31

Longitudinal Muscles - Palatopharyngeus

Function

Elevates pharynx

32

Longitudinal Muscles - Palatopharyngeus

Innervation

Pharyngeal plexus (vagus)

33

Posterior View

34

Features of Pharynx

35

Pharynx Arterial Supply

36

Pharynx Veins and Lymph

37

Pharynx Innervation

38

Pharyngeal Plexus

39

Pre-vertebral (anterior muscles)

 

Longus Colli

Longus Capitis

Rectus Capitis Anterior

Rectus Capitis Lateralis

40

Longus Capitis

Attachments

Transverse processes of cervial vertebrae anterior tubercles C3-6 to base of occipital bone

41

Longus Capitis

Function

Flexion of head

42

Longus Capitis

Innervation

Ventral rami cervical spinal nerves (C1-3)

43

Longus Colli

Attachments (3)

From atlas to T3

Inferior and superior oblique, and vertical parts

Inferior oblique: T2/3 to anterior tubercle of cervical transverse processes C5,6

Superior Oblique: Anterior tubercle C3-5 to atlantal anterior tubercle

Vertical: Anterior aspect T1-3 to C4-6

44

Longus Colli

Function

Flexion of neck and rotation to opposite side via inferior oblique

45

Longus Colli

Innervation

Ventral rami cervial spinal nerves (C2-6)

46

Recus Capitis Anterior and Lateralis

Attachments (2)

Anterior: From anterior surface and root of transverse process of atlas to occipital bone

Lateralis: From transverse process of atlas to occipital bone

47

Recus Capitis Anterior and Lateralis

Function

Anterior: Flex atlanto-occipital joint

Lateralis: Gives lateral flexion of the head (crossed by internal jugular vein)

48

Recus Capitis Anterior and Lateralis

Innervation

Ventral rami of cervical nerves (C1-C2 loop)

49

Sympathtic Ganglia

From base of skill to join to thoracic

Chain behind internal and common carotid arteries

Medial to vagus nerve

Embedded in deep fascia between carotid sheath and fascia over surface of longus capitis and longus colli

Superior, middle and inferior cervical ganglia

50

Superior Cervical Ganglia

Large, immediately below skill

Internal carotid nerve into carotid canal toform internal carotid plexus

Gray rami communicantes to C1-4 ventral rami

Branches to form plexus of common and external carotid arteris

Cranial nerve branches (CN IX, X, XII)

Pharyngeal branches join CN IX and CN X in pharyngeal plexus

Superior cardiac - plexus in throat

51

Middle Cervical Ganglion

Small, at level of cricoid cartilage
Related to loop of inferior thyroid artery
Gray rami communicantes to C5,6 ventral rami
Thyroid branches along artery to gland
Middle cardiac branch to cardiac plexus
Middle to inferior usually 2 or more nerve bundles – anterior bundle pass anterior to 1st part subclavian artery and then behind it = ansa subclavia
 

52

Inferior Cervical Ganglion

Usually fused with 1st thoracic ganglion to form stellate ganglion
Lies behind vertebral artery between transverse process of C7 and head of 1st rib
Grey rami communicantes to ventral rami of C7,8
Arterial branches to subclavian and vertebral arteries
Inferior cardiac branch to cardiac plexus