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Flashcards in anti-inflammatory agents Deck (41)
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1

acute inflammation

initial response to injury, release of pro-inflammatory mediators, precedes immune response

2

pro-inflammatory mediators examples

histamine, seratonin, bradykinin, prostaglandin, leukotrienes

3

chronic inflammation

different mediators than acute inflammation, causes pain, destruction of tissue and disability

4

what do non-steroidal drugs block?

they do not allow cyclooxygenase to have effect, preventing prostaglandin formation

5

what to steroidal drugs inhibit?

steriods inhibit phospholipase production

6

Arachidonic acid

first precursor to all inflammatory mediators

7

COX 1 functions

present in stomach cells and aid in mucous production in the stomach. when it is inhibited, ulcers may occur

8

effect of eicosanoids on muscle

vascular: vasoconstriction or vasodilation, GI:contraction or colic Uterus:contraction (may cause abortion in mares) pulmonary:constriction

9

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) mode of action

activity of the drug is mediated by inhibition of prostaglandin, during treatment inflammation is reduced by decreasing the release of mediators from granulocytes, basophils and mast cells.

10

NSAID characteristics

analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and inhibit platelet aggregation (aspirin is irreversible). they are gastric irritants (cuts mucous production) and can cause kidney problems (by prolonged use or too long of a dose)

11

analgesic

treat pain

12

antipyretic

treats fever

13

common NSAIDs used in horses

flunixin meglumine (banamine), phenylbutazone,ketoprofen, naproxen,firocoxib (like prevacox, used for arthritis), aspirin, dypirone

14

uses for NSAIDs

relieving pain, reducing fever, counteracting endotoxemia, reducing excessive blood clotting

15

how do NSAIDs relieve pain?

prostaglandins produce pain, by reducing prostaglandins, pain is reduced

16

how do NSAIDs reduce fever?

prostaglandins produced during both infection and inflammation cause fever, while high fever is a way to fight infection, high fever can denature proteins and cause irreversible brain damage

17

how do NSAIDs counteract endotoxemia?

endotoxemia is when bacteria toxins reach the bloodstream. these toxins can be life threatening. generally flunixin melglumine (ban amine) is the preferred NSAID for endotoxic effects

18

how do NSAIDs reduce excessive blood clotting?

by blocking thromboxane production, NSAIDs help maintain blood flow in situations where excessive blood clotting causes problems ex. thromboembolic colic

19

thromboembolic colic

clots in the blood vessels that supply GI tract can lead to necrosis of portions of the intestine

20

phenylbutazone

potent pain reliever, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory, commonly used for lameness, resulting from soft tissue injury, muscle soreness, bone and joint problems and laminitis, may be given IV or orally, pain relief and fever reduction usually within 1-2 hours. if a horse needs bute for more than a few days,use drugs that protect the GI tract

21

fluxinin Meglumine

used for pain relief in the treatment of colic, used for protection from the septic/endotoxic shock due to any gastrointestinal insult, used as an anti-inflammatory in the treatment of painful conditions of the eye (corneal ulcers, uveitis,conjunctivitis,and before/after eye surgery), may be used to reduce or control fevers due to viral or bacterial infection, may be given IV, IM or PO. can cause GI Ulcers

22

cortisol production

stress hormone, produced by the adrenal cortex and synthesized from cholesterol

23

actions of cortisol

aids in proper glucose metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, insulin release for blood sugar maintenance, immune function (decreases immune activity), inflammatory response (impedes immediate pain with huge surges)

24

when are there higher levels of cortisol in the body

in the morning, stressed horses have higher level of cortisol

25

functions of cortisol in a fight or flight situation

gives quick burst of energy for survival reasons, heightened memory functions (remember tiny details of an event), burst of increased immunity (then immunity decreases afterwards), lowers sensitivity to pain, helps maintain homeostasis in the body

26

effects of prolonged levels of cortisol in the bloodstream

impaired cognitive performance, suppressed thyroid function (makes people tired), blood sugar imbalances such as hyperglycemia, decreased bone density, higher blood pressure, lowered immunity and inflammatory responses in the body, slowed wound healing and other health consequences

27

what type of feedback does cortisol have

negative feedback, when levels of cortisol are high, cortisol is not produced, dexamethasone and prednazone cause the body to think there is increased levels of cortisol in the body so CRH and ACTH are not produced

28

Metabolic effects of Glucocorticoids

carbohydrate protein and fat metabolism. increase serum glucose, stimulate insulin release and lipogenesis (production of fat tissue)

29

catabolic effect of glucocorticoids

supra physiologic amounts o steroids lead to decreased muscle mass and weakness..catabolic effect on bones is osteoperosis

30

anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids

effects on concentration, distribution and function of peripheral leukocytes. reduces leukotrienes, prostaglandin etc.