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Flashcards in botulism Deck (10)
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1

botulism

caused by exotoxin clostridium botulinum, characterized by flaccid paralysis, botulinum toxin is most potent toxin known

2

etiology

gram positive, anaerobic, all 8 types of neurotoxins cause identical disease but the use of anti-toxin needs to be specific

3

epidemiology

infectious but not contagious, reported worldwide, but mostly seen in KY and mid-atlantic region of US, Type B botulism is found in KY

4

Type B botulism

spoiled grass, hay, feed, black mould causes botulism

5

type C botulism

caused by animal carcass rolled in hay

6

pathogenesis

forage poisoning by ingestion of pre-formed toxins in contaminated feed, toxicoinfectious ingestion of spores and toxins are formed in the digestive tract, or gets into contaminated wound, toxin irreversibly binds to cholinergic nerve terminals and toxin prevents release of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction sp muscles cannot contract, causes flaccid paralysis

7

clinical signs

dysphagia, flaccid paralysis, decrease eyelid, tongue and tail tone, onset of disease may happen12 hrs after exposure to toxin, sudden or unexpected death, muscle trembling in foals, recumbency, deminished GI motility, death due to respiratory failure

8

diagnosis

clinical signs, very difficult to detect toxin in feces and serum or feed, but possible

9

treatment

anti-toxin administration, nursing care, respiratory assistance to foals, fluid, anema, urinary catheter, new nerve terminal formation takes days or weeks

10

prevention

annual vaccination, avoid feeding round bales to horses, avoid feeding silage/haylage to horses