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Flashcards in tetanus Deck (9)
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1

tetanus

infectious disease, but not contagious, characterized by rigid paralysis

2

etiology

caused by exotoxins (toxins produced by bacteria that is still living) of clostridium tetani, mobile, anaerobic and gram positive bacteria, soil inhabitant and isolated from horse feces, horse is most sensitive animal to tetanus toxin

3

route of infection

puncture wounds contaminated with manure, soil, contaminated surgical wounds, injection abcesses, navel, causative wound is not found in 15-30% of cases

4

pathogenesis

tetanolysin damages tissues creating favorable conditions for anaerobic infection, tetanospasmin reaches the bloodstream, reaching peripheral nerve terminals throughout the body and binds irreversibly to inhibitory neurons. this results in muscle rigidity and muscle spasms, recovery requires growth of new nerve terminals which takes weeks

5

clinical signs

rigidity of neck and jaw-inability to eat and drink, prolapse of the 3rd eyelid, muscles of the limbs trunk and tale-sawhorse stance, recumbency, tonic spasms initiated by external stimuli: sound, light, touch, rhabdomylosis, tendon avulsion, fracture of bones, death due to respiratory failure

6

diagnosis

based on clinical signs and poor vaccination history

7

treatment

provision of safe and quiet environment, elimination of unbound toxin- anti-toxin administration, sedation and muscle relaxation, general support

8

prognosis

mortality in up to 75% of cases, if detected early, higher chance of survival

9

prevention

vaccination: 2-3 dose initial series then annual booster, broodmares vaccinated 4-6 weeks postpartum, injured horses should be given anti-toxin and vaccine