inflammatory process Flashcards Preview

EQM 351 > inflammatory process > Flashcards

Flashcards in inflammatory process Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...
1

cell characteristics

cells tend to preserve their environment to maintain homeostasis (body wants to go back to normal ASAP). Physiologic stress or pathologic stimuli cause cells to undergo adaptation and find a new steady state to preserve viability

2

physiologic stress

stimulation of cells to do something different so cells begin to change. ex. lifting weights at the gym

3

pathologic stimuli

rupturing of cells from too much stress ex. bowed tendon

4

atrophy

decrease in cell size, but cells are still there

5

hypertrophy

increase in cell size by increasing exercise or use

6

hyperplasia

increase in cell number. May be caused by pregnancy (in uterus/udder) or cancer (tumor)

7

metaplasia

change in cell type, may change back to original cell type. ex. cigarette smokers (normal cells in trachea have cilia but smokers do not have ciliated cells because they are more resistant to smoke)

8

is injury reversible?

injury can be reversible, but with persistent or severe stress (ex. broken leg), injury is irreversible (results in cell death)

9

Necrosis

loss of blood supply or exposure to toxins, cellular swelling, protein denaturation and tissue dysfunction results

10

apoptosis

programmed cell death, dead cells are removed with minimal disruption of the surrounding tissue

11

Causes of Cell Injury

1. oxygen deprevation (hypoxia) 2. chemical agents 3. infectious agents 4. genetic defects 5.immunologic reactions 6. nutritional imbalance 7. physical agents 8. aging

12

ischemia

oxygen deprivation, loss of blood supply in tissue due to impeded arterial flow or reduced venous drainage ex. cut, atheriosclerosis, embolism

13

inadequate oxygenation

type of oxygen deprevation, ex. pneumonia and emphysema

14

reduced O2 carrying capacity of blood

ex. anemia, loss of red blood cells

15

chemical agents

any chemical substance can cause cell injury (even salt and water). ethanol causes liver injury that is reversible at first but chronic ethanol use will lead to irreversible injury (liver exhaustion=cerosis)

16

infectious agent

ex. virus, bacteria, worms, fungi, protozoan

17

genetic defects

may result in pathologic changes ex. lethal white

18

immunologic reactions

anaphylactic shock is classical example of an exaggerated immune response, auto-immune disease which is loss of self-tolerance (lupus, rheumatoid arthritis)

19

anaphylactic shock

disregulated allergy causing an exaggerated immune response (causes swelling in throat, asphyxiation and death)

20

nutritional imbalance

malnourishment or obesity

21

physical agents

trauma (cuts, bruises, concussions ect.), burns, cold (frostbite)

22

aging

the body becomes exhausted, repeated trauma, imperfect restoration of structure or function, cellular senescence

23

what does response to injurious stimuli depend on?

type of injury, duration and severity

24

what do consequences of injury depend on?

adaptability and genetic makeup (ex. cats heal faster than dogs) of the injured cell. ex. skeletal muscle can withstand 2-3 hours of ischemia w/o irreversible injury while the cardiac muscle can only tolerate 20-30 mins and the brain can only tolerate 3-4 mins

25

inflammation

a protective response intended to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury as well as the necrotic (dead) cells and tissues resulting from the original insult, heals and reconstitutes the site of injury, interwoven with the repair process, helps clear infection and makes would healing possible but may cause harm

26

acute inflammation

immediate and early response to injury, designed to deliver leukocytes to the site of injury

27

leukocytes (white blood cells)

clear any invading microbes and begin the process of cleaning necrotic tissue

28

two components of acute inflammation

vascular changes (vasodilation to increase blood flow) and cellular events (cellular recruitment and activation, leukocytes migrate)

29

5 classical signs of acute inflammation

heat (area becomes hot to the touch, fever, caused by increased blood flow), redness (caused by increased blood flow), swelling (caused by leaky blood vessels allowing WBCs to enter the area), pain (caused by the inflammatory cells) and loss of function (not same as loss of movement)

30

Neutrophils

first responders to bacterial and fungal infections, form pus