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Flashcards in immune system Deck (28)
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1

immunity

a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease or other unwanted biological invasion

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natural acquired immunity

ex. infection

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artificial acquired immunity

vaccination

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passive acquired immunity

colostrum

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pathogen

disease causing organism ex. bacteria, virus, fungi etc

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antigen

any substance capable of generating an immune response. ex. proteins or parts of bacteria

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cells of the immune system

white blood cells (leukocytes)

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innate immune system cells

phagocytes, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils and natural killer cells

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adaptive immune system cells

lymphocytes and dendritic cells

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protective mechanical barriers

epidermis, intrinsic epithelial, saliva, coughing, sneezing, flushing action of urine, cilia

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chemical barriers

sebum, skin acidity, beta defensins, gastric juice

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innate immune response characteristics

present from birth, not particular for any microbial substance, not enhanced by second exposure, has no memory, uses cellular and humoral components

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function of innate immune response

first line of defense, slows the growth of infectious agents until the adaptive immune response kicks in. focuses on broad characteristic of microbes. PAMPS of microbes bind to PRRs of innate immune cells

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stages of antigen processing

1. uptake-access to native antigens and pathogens to intracellular pathways of degradation
2.degradation-
3.Antigen MHC complex formation
4.antigen presentation

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neutrophils

most abundant immune cell in the blood. main role is to get to a site of infection and perform phagocytosis. after taking up the microorganism the neutrophil will die, cause pus formation

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monocytes

migrate into the tissues and differentiate into macrophages, phagocytose microorganisms, present antigen to t-cells

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natural killer cells

part of the innate immune system, directly include apoptosis in virus infected cells

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cytokines and chemokines

responsible for immune cell-to-cell communication, soluble proteins and peptides, similar to hormones, cause cells to migrate from the blood into the tissue underlying the infection`

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antigen presenting cells or phagocytes

link between the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system, once they engulf the microbe, they travel to the lymphatic system to present antigens to the lymphocytes (adaptive immune system)

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lymphatics function

removal of excess tissue fluid, waste material transport, filtration and movement of lymph, transport

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adaptive immunity characteristics

learnt by experience, confers pathogen specific immunity, enhanced by second exposure, has memory, uses cellular and humoral components, is poorly effective without innate immunity.

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parts of the adaptive immune system

cell mediated immunity (T cells) and humoral immunity (B cells become plasma cells)

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T cells

from the bone marrow, mature in the thymus, produce cytokines

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CD4 t cells

t helper cells that activate b cells to produce antibodies

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CD8 T cells

cytotoxic t cells and regulatory t cells (kill infected cells)

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cell mediated immunity

effective against intracellular bacteria, viruses and intracellular parasites, limits disease but does not prevent infection

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humoral immunity

effective against toxins, viruses, some bacteria and extracellular parasites, also prevent infection

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why do we vaccinate?

aid in prevention of disease, reduce severity of disease and minimize spread of disease