Antibiotics, Fungal, Protozoal, Helminths Flashcards Preview

Pharma > Antibiotics, Fungal, Protozoal, Helminths > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antibiotics, Fungal, Protozoal, Helminths Deck (91):
1

Lowest concentration of antimicrobial drug capable of inhibiting growth of an organism

Minimum inhibitory concentration

2

Beta lactam antibiotics bind to penicillin binding proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane and inhibits what type of reaction?

Transpeptidation reaction
Cross linking

3

What bacteria induces penicillin resistance by enzymatic hydrolysis of beta lactam ring by formation of beta lactamases?

Staph aureus

4

What bacteria induces penicillin resistance by structural change in the target PBP?

MRSA
Pneumococci
Enterococci

5

What bacteria induces penicillin resistance by changing porin structures in the outer cell wall?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

6

Ampicillin may be used in infections due to

HELPS Me

H influenzae
E coli, enterococci
Listeria
Proteus
Salmonella
Moraxella

7

What type of penicillin is resistant to inactivation by beta lactamases?

Isoxazolyl penicillin
(Anti -staphylococcal)

8

Ampicillin has synergystic effect when given with

Aminoglycosides

9

Antipseudomonal penicillins

Takes Care of Pseudomonas
Ticarcillin
Carbenicillin
Piperacillin

10

Beta lactamase resistant antibiotics

Isoxazolyl penicillin
4th gen cephalosporins
Monobactams

11

Covered by first generation cephalosporins

PEcKs first

Proteus
E coli
Klebsiella

12

2nd generation cephalosporins have added coverage for infections due to

HEN
Haemophilus
Enterobacter
Neisseria

13

Cephalosporin that can cause disulfiram reaction

2nd- cefotetan, cefamandole
3rd- cefoperazone

14

Inhibits renal metabolism of imipinem by dihydropeptidase

Cilastin

15

Monobactam that has no activity against gram positive bacteria
Resistant to beta lactamase

Aztreonam

16

Suicide inhibitors

Clavulanic acid
Sulbactam
Tazobactam

17

Drugs of Last resort

I AM your Last Shot at Victory
Imipinem
Amikacin
Meropenem
Linezolid
Streptogramins
Vanco

18

Inhibits cell wall synthesis by binding to D-ala D- ala terminus of nascent peptidoglycan

Vancomycin

19

Can cause red man syndrome

Vancomycin

20

Used for pseudomembranous colitis

Vancomycin

21

Used for uncomplicated UTI, safe for pregnant patients

Inactivates UDP N acetylglucosamine 3 enol pyruvyltransferase

Fosfomycin

22

Bacteriostatic drug that inhibits transpeptidation at 50s subunit

For meningitis
Can cause aplastic anemia
Gray baby syndrome

Chloramphenicol

23

Most potent tetracycline

Minocycline

24

Tetracycline that has broadest spectrum and least resistance

Tigecycline

25

Antibiotic for
Mycoplasma
Chlamydia
Rickettsia
Vibrio

Tetracyclines

26

Bacteriostatic, binds to 50s subunit
Hepatotoxic
Can be used for CAP, diphtheria, chlamydia

Macrolides

27

All macrolides inhibit CYP450 except

Azithromycin

28

Macrolide used for macrolide resistance

Telithromycin

29

Antibiotic for anaerobic infections above the diaphragm

Clindamycin

30

Antibiotic for anaerobic infections below the diaphragm

Metronidazole

31

Narrowest therapeutic window among aminoglycosides

Amikacin

32

Most vestibulotoxic and nephrotoxic aminoglycosides

Tobramycin
Gentamycin

33

Aminoglycoside used for bowel prep, hepatic enceph, skin infections

Neomycin(topical)
Kanamycin
Paromomycin

34

Most ototoxic aminoglycoside

Kamamycin

35

Aminoglycoside for drug resistant gonorrhea

Spectinomycin

36

Sulfonamide that inhibits dihydropteroate synthase and used for burn infection

Silver sulfadiazine

37

Co-trimoxazole inhibits these enzymes

Dihydropteroate synthase
Dihydrofolate reductase

38

This class of antibiotics may damage growing cartilage and cause arthropathy in people <18 years old

Quinolones

39

Fluoroquinolone used for UTI, GIT infections, atypical pneumonia

Can cause tendonitis and tendon rupture

Ciprofloxacin

40

Widest spectrum of activity among fluoroquinolones

4th gen
Trovafloxacin
Alatrofloxacin

41

Prevent neurotoxicity of Isoniazid by administering with

Pyridoxine

42

Most hepatotoxic anti TB drug

Pyrazinamide

43

Sterilizing anti TB drug

Pyrazinamide

44

Anti TB drug that can cause hyperuricemia

Pyrazinamide

45

Ethambutol can cause this type of color blindness

Red green color

46

Antimycobacterial that inhibits folic acid synthesis

Dapsone

47

Most active drug against M.leprae

Dapsone

48

Drug for leprosy that can cause red orange skin

Clofazimine

49

Antifungal that binds to ergosterol in fungal cell membrane, forming artificial pores

For systemic fungal infections
Nephrotoxic

Amphotericin B

50

Antifungal that inhibits thymidilate synthase

Used for cryptococcosis, systemic candidal infections
Has selective toxicity
Synergistic with amphotericin

Flucytosine

51

Antifungal that blocks ergosterol synthesis

For chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, dermatophytosis

Can cause gynecomastia, limited to topical use

Ketoconazole

52

Azole antifungal that has good CNS penetrability

Fluconazole

53

Azole antifungal that is used for blastomycosis, sporothricosis, dermatophytosis

More selective for fungal cells than ketoconazole

Itraconazole

54

Echinocandin antifungal that inhibits beta glucan synthase

Used for disseminated and mucocutaneous candidaliasis
Salvage therapy for invasive aspergillosis

Caspofungin

55

Systemic antifungal for dermatophytosis

Accumulates in keratin
Contraindicated in porphyria

Griseofulvin

56

Squalene oxidase inhibitor antifungal for dermatophytosis and onychomycosis

Accumulates in keratin

Terbinafine

57

Polyene topical antifungal for candidiasis

Swish and swallow preparation

Nystatin

58

Azole topical antifungal for mucocutaneous candidiasis
Seborrheic dermatitis
Pityriasis versicolor

Clotrimazole

59

Anti viral used for herpes

Acyclovir

60

Acyclovir works if activated by the viral _______ ________

Thymidine kinase

61

Antiviral for CMV

Ganciclovir

62

Antiviral that is active against HSV strains with absent thymidine kinase activity

Cifodovir
Foscarnet

63

NRTI used to prevent maternal-fetal HIV transmission

Zidovudine
Lamivudine
Abacavir
Didanosine
Emtricitabine
Tenofovir

64

Non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

DENR
Delavirdine
Efavirenz
Nevirapin

65

Protease inhibitor that inhibits viral protein processing

Can cause hyperlipidemia
Fat redistribution
Acanthosis nigricans
Hyperglycemia

Indinavir and family of -navir

66

Antiviral for influenza A
Virtually obsolete
Also used for Parkinsonism

Amantadine

67

Oseltamivir inhibits this enzyme

Neuraminidase

68

Hepa B antiviral that inhibits HBV DNA polymerase

Lamivudine

69

Coinfection of HBV and HIV may increase the risk of this disease with lamivudine use

Pancreatitis

70

Antimalarial used for chemoprophylaxis

Mefloquine

71

Anti malarial that eradicates hypnozoites in the liver preventing relapse

Primaquine

72

Antimalarial that can cause cinchonim

Quinine

73

Antimalarial for chloroquine resistance and severe falciparum malaria

Cardiotoxicity

Halofantrine
Lumefantrine

74

DOC in Philippines for uncomplicated falciparum malaria

Co-Artem

75

Drug of choice for asymptomatic cyst carrier for E. histolytica

Diloxanide Furoate

76

Backup drug for severe intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis

Emetine

77

Drug of choice for cryptosporidiosis

Nitazoxanide

78

Drug of choice for toxoplasmosis

Pyrimethamine-Sulfadiazine

79

Drug of choice for African sleeping sickness

Melarsoprol

80

Drug of choice for advanced West African sleeping sickness

Eflornithine

81

Drug of choice for Chagas disease

Nifurtimox

82

Nifurtimox inhibits this enzyme

Trypanothione reductase

83

Drug of choice for Leishmaniasis

Sodium stibogluconate
Meglumine antimonate
Amphotericin
Miltefosine

84

Antihelmintic that inhibits microtubule assembly
Larvicidal and ovicidal

Drug of choice for ascariasis

Albendazole

85

Ovicidal antihelminthic
Drug of choice for trichuris trichiura (whipworm)

Mebendazole

86

Ovicidal antihelmintic
Drug of choice for trichinosis

Thiabendazole

87

Drug of choice for filiariasis

Diethlycarbamazine

88

Antihelminthic thay intensifies GABA mediated neurotransmission in nematodes

Drug of choice for strongyloides

Ivermectin

89

Can cause Mazzotii reaction

DEC
Ivermectin

90

Drug of choice for pinworm and hookworm

Stimulates nicotinic receptors at NMJ of nematodes

Pyrantel pamoate

91

Antihelminthic that increases membrane permeability to calcium that causes paralysis

Drug of choice for trematodes and cestodes

Praziquantel