Antiemetics Flashcards Preview

Applied Pharmacology > Antiemetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antiemetics Deck (15):
1

Emesis...

Vomit reflex - controlled in brainstem on dorsal surface of medulla oblongata.
CINV = Chemotherapy induced N&V.
PONV = Post-op N&V.

2

Antiemetics targetting Histamine....

Cyclizine - motion sickness.
Cinnarizine - motion, vestibular disorders (Menieres and vertigo).
Promethazine - severe morning sickness.

3

Histamine target side effects...

Drowsiness & Sedation.

4

Examples of H3 Antagonists...

Betehistine Hydrochloride = Anti-vertigo: activates H receptors on inner ear bl vessels > vasodilation > permeability > reverses endolymphatic hydrous.

5

H3 Antagonist Side Effects...

GI disturbances, headaches, rashes, pruritus.

6

Antiemetics targetting Dopamine...

Phenothiazines - morning sickness, IV oral.
Prochloropromazine - tablet IM
Perphenazine - tablet
Trifluoperazine - tablet
Chlorpromazine - tablet IM
Metoclopramide - penetrates BBB, increase motility in GIT. Oral IV IM.
Domperidone - doesn't penetrate BBB. migraine / cytotoxic thera`py. induces emesis as contraception. Oral IV.

7

Dopamine target side effects:

Sedation, hypotension, dystonia, dyskinesia, movement disorders, fatigue, motor restlessness, spasmodic torticollis, oculogyric crises, menstruation disorders, QT prolongation, fatigue.

8

Antiemetics targetting Serotonin 5HT3...

Ondansetron - CINV PONV. Oral IV IM > GI disturbances and headaches.

9

Antiemetics targetting Substance P and Neurokinin...

Aprepitant - CINV PONV oral IV.
Eosaprepitant.
Casopitant / Maropitant - motion sickness.

10

Side effects of P/NK antiemetics...

fatigue, listlessness, constipation/diarrhoea, loss appetite, hiccups, dizziness, ringing ears, dyspepsia, anorexia, asthenia, headaches.

11

Mechanism of Cannabinoids...

Antagonist of CB receptors, act via opioid receptors in CTZ.

12

Examples of Cannabinoids...

Marion / Dornabinol - Oral.
Nabilone / Cesamet - mimetic of cannabic HTC, chronic pain therapy.

13

Side effects of Cannabinoids...

drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, mood changes, postural hypotension, hallucinations and psychotic reactions.

14

Corticosteroids used as antiemetics...

Dexamethasone = CINV. used with Dopamine target or Serotonin targets.

15

Inducing emesis after overdose / alcohol intoxication...

Syrup of ipecac - alkaloid emetine/cepheline. oral working in 15 mins. irritate gastric mycosa to activate CTZ.
Apomorphine - stimulates CTZ/VC. IM/subcut act in 5-10 mins.
Activated charcoal - absorbent that binds toxins.