Flashcards in Asthma Drugs Deck (20):
Aim of Asthma treatment
Reduce inflammation, Prevent bronchoconstriction and restore airways.
Exercise, Cold air, Respiratory infection, Atmospheric pollutants, Pollen, Dust mite and Animal dander.
How do Bronchodilators control Asthma?
Dilate bronchioles, increasing air flow to alveoli and relax smooth muscle cells around bronchiole walls.
How do B2 Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists treat asthma?
Relax bronchiole smooth muscle, inhibit mediator release from mast cells, act on cilia to increase mucus clearance.
Examples of B2 Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists...
Salbutamol/Terbutaline (last 4-6 hours)
Salmeterol (last 12 hours, dose inhaler)
Side effects of B2 Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists...
Absorbed into systemic circulation, tremor and development of tolerance.
How does Theophylline treat asthma?
Xanthine inhibits PDE receptor.
Given with steroid.
Side effects of Theophylline...
CNS stimulant, tremor, sleep disturbance, stimulates heart, vasodilator GI tract, anorexia, N&V.
Mechanism of Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists...
Relax bronchial smooth muscle, inhibits elevated mucus, increases clearance of bronchial secretions and blocks endogenous ACH.
Examples of Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists...
|patropium - lasts 3-5 hours, aerosol inhalation, poorly absorbed into systemic circulation.
Mechanism of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists...
Prevent exercise-induced asthma and aspirin-sensitive asthma. Act on cysteinyl-leukotriene receptors on bronchiole smooth muscle cells preventing action of LTC4 LTD4 which stimulate mucus secretions.
Side effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists...
GI disturbance and headaches.
Mechanism of Glucocorticoids...
Reduce production of cytokines/spasmogens/leucocyte chemotaxins to reduce bronchospasm and inflammatory cell active action.
Examples of Glucocorticoids...
Beclometasone, Diproprionate, Budesonide, Fluticasone, Propionate, Prednisolone and Hydrocortisone.
Side Effects of Glucocorticoids...
Oropharyngeal thrush, dysphonia, large doses cause adrenal suppression.
Mechanisms of Cromoglicate (Nedocromil Sodium)...
Reduce early/late phase responses and bronchial hyper-activity. Stabilise mast cells, reduce neuronal reflexes, inhibit release of T cell cytokines.
Side effects of Cromoglicate...
Irritates upper respiratory tract and can cause hyper-sensitivity.
Most effective in children.
Mechanism of Biological Agents...
Bind to Ige to inhibit it binding to mast cell receptor.
Examples of Biological Agents...
Omalizumab and Xolair - submit injection lasting 2-3 weeks.