Antimicrobial Agents -Antiparasitics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antimicrobial Agents -Antiparasitics Deck (30):
1

Does nematodes or filariae need drugs that are well absorbed? What about strongyloides stercoralis?

1. filiarea- think they are delivered by vector in blood so need systemic meds
2. nematode but needs well-absorbed drugs

2

Is mebendazole well absorbed? albendazole? Is thiabendazole?

1. No
2. yes with a fatty meal
3. well absorbed

3

Which benzimidazole is not well tolerated? Which benzimidazole is contraindicated in pregnancy?

1. Thiabendazole
2. All of them

4

What do we treat ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms with and what length of Tx?

1. Albendazole- single dose
2. Mebendazole- three days

5

What do treat enterobius vermicularis with and what length of Tx?

1. Albendazole- single dose repeated in 2 weeks
2. Mebendazole- single dose repeated in 2 weeks

6

What do we treat strongyloides stercoralis with and length of Tx?

1. Albendazole- 7days
2. Thiabendazole- 1-2 days
3. Ivermectim- 2 days

7

Does diethylcarbamazine treat adult filariae? What is it not recommended for?

1. no just microfilariae
2. onchocerca volvulus- adverse reaction for dying larva- Mazzotti reaction

8

Does ivermectin treat adult filariae? What is the T1/2? Are adverse reactions more or less than diethylcarbamazine?

1. No just microfilariae
2. 12 hours
3. less severe

9

With the antifilarial agents, what are the inflammatory response and side effects due to?

antigens from the dying parasites

10

What treats dirofilaria immitis dog heart worm?

ivermectin

11

What is the drug of choice for elephantiasis whether it be wuchereria bancrofti or brugaria malayi?

Diethylcarbamazine

12

What is the treatment of choice for onchocerca volvulus? Loa Loa?

1. Ivermectin
2. Diethylcarbamazine

13

What is the only cestode that we know that humans are only the intermediate host for and not definitive host?

1. Echninococcus granulosus [taenia solium too but they are also definitive host]

14

Does praziquantel have a long half life? does it get in CSF?

1. yes very long- single dose is often possible
2. Yes 15-20 % of serum concentration

15

Is niclosamide absorbed well?

No-absorbed poorly

16

What is given to all cestodes with tissue cyst stages outside the GI tract?

Albendazole
[(25% in echinococcal cysts; 40-50% in CSF)]

17

Prazinquantel is usually a one time treatment. When is it not?

1. Taenia solium cystercosis

18

What is used to treat the sheep liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica?

Biothionol

19

What are the 2 problems with treatment of malaria?

Problem #1: Drug resistance of P. falciparum isolates in many geographic
regions.
Problem #2: Resista`nce of hypnozoite (persistent liver) stage to many
antimalarials, resulting in relapse of P. vivax or P. ovale disease.

20

When are quinoline antimalarials active?

Against intraerythrocytic stages

21

What is the T1/2 of mefloquine?

14 days

22

What is quinine sulfate used in combination with?

tetracycline or doxycycline

23

What drug eradicates hypnozoites?

primaquine

24

DOES ARTEMESININS HAVE A LONG HALF LIFE?

No, short
[co-artemether is the drug of choice for presumptive self-treatment of malaria]

25

What does halofantine cause?

fatal cardiac conduction abnormalities

26

What does amodiaquine cause?

agranulocytosis in travelers

27

When would we not use mefloquine, malarone, or doxycyline for malaria prophylaxis?

When chloroquine will suffice in CG sensitive P. falciparum regions

28

What do we use to treat protozoa living in anaerobic environments?

Metronidazole

(Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis)

29

Is paromomycin absorbed well?

No it is poorly absorbed

30

What is the only agent for cryptosporidium? what is the mech.?

1. nitazoxanide [also can be used for resistant giardia]
2. Ferrodoxin oxidoreductase