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Flashcards in Toxicology I Deck (76)
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1

What are most poisons produced by?

medication

2

What type of medications produce the greets number of poisons?

OTC analgesics

3

What do street drugs rank on the poisons list?

10th

4

What are the most common non-medication toxicities from?

household cleaning products

5

Are people actually worried more about lower risks than higher ones?

yes

6

What are the 2 main goals of toxicology?

1. protection of humans and the environment
2. development of better selective toxicants.

7

What was paracelsus major statement in terms of toxicology?

All substances are poison, there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison from a remedy.
[1. tried to experiment with toxins
2. tried to distinguish dose ranges
3. requested that active ingredients be extracted to have better and stronger effect]

8

Is poison a quantatative or qualitative concept?

Quant.

9

What is the most lethal toxin?

Botulinus Toxin

10

What is the most lethal manmade toxin?

TCDD dioxin

11

How many children die each year of unintentional poisoning? leading cause of death?

More than 45,000 (5-17 age) 5th leading cause of injury death

12

How man unintentional poisoning deaths in the US. in 2014

36,280
11.6 per 100,000

13

T-F--trends of deaths by poison has been falling? motor vehicle accidents?

False
True

14

When does rates of poisoning deaths jump up according to age?

late teens, 20

drops off at 60

highest at 50

15

Poisoning in young children <5 is most likely caused by what? 2nd cause? 3rd?

Parents medications (over half)
Cosmetics
Cleaning supplies

16

How many of adolescent poisonings are intentional, either as a suicide or substance abuse?

Over half

17

In adults what poisons far outnumber street drugs?

prescriptions

18

What is the percentage of unintentional poisoning in hospitals by drugs?

79%

19

What is risk in terms of toxicology?

The probability or likelihood of adverse effects occurring

20

Is smoke plum or alcohol exposure voluntary? under own control? known risks? common risks? immediate adverse effects? consequences reversible?

1.alcohol
2. alcohol
3. Alcohol
4. Alcohol
5. Alcohol but both can be or not be
6. Alcohol, but both can be or not be.

21

IS poisoning a growing problem?

Yes

22

What is the 3 step approach to risk prevention?

1. Hazrd Identification and analysis
2. Risk Assessment
3. Risk Management

23

T-F- inhalation exposure is easy to avoid?

False

24

4 key air pollutants?

CO, SOx, NOx, Ozone

25

Air pollution is a risk factor for what 2 things?

cardiac death and pulmonary conditions

26

How many US people live in areas with pollutant concentrations deemed unsafe?

1/3

27

What two air pollutants are asphyxiants?

CO
cyanide

28

What air pollutants are irritants?

SO2
NO2
SMOG-OZONE, aldehydes, particles, hydrocarbons

29

What are the 6 criteria pollutants?

CO
SO2
NO2
OZone
PM
Lead

30

Where does SOx come from?

fossil fuel power plants>>>industry