Flashcards in Toxicology I Deck (76)
What are most poisons produced by?
What type of medications produce the greets number of poisons?
What do street drugs rank on the poisons list?
What are the most common non-medication toxicities from?
household cleaning products
Are people actually worried more about lower risks than higher ones?
What are the 2 main goals of toxicology?
1. protection of humans and the environment
2. development of better selective toxicants.
What was paracelsus major statement in terms of toxicology?
All substances are poison, there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison from a remedy.
[1. tried to experiment with toxins
2. tried to distinguish dose ranges
3. requested that active ingredients be extracted to have better and stronger effect]
Is poison a quantatative or qualitative concept?
What is the most lethal toxin?
What is the most lethal manmade toxin?
How many children die each year of unintentional poisoning? leading cause of death?
More than 45,000 (5-17 age) 5th leading cause of injury death
How man unintentional poisoning deaths in the US. in 2014
11.6 per 100,000
T-F--trends of deaths by poison has been falling? motor vehicle accidents?
When does rates of poisoning deaths jump up according to age?
late teens, 20
drops off at 60
highest at 50
Poisoning in young children <5 is most likely caused by what? 2nd cause? 3rd?
Parents medications (over half)
How many of adolescent poisonings are intentional, either as a suicide or substance abuse?
In adults what poisons far outnumber street drugs?
What is the percentage of unintentional poisoning in hospitals by drugs?
What is risk in terms of toxicology?
The probability or likelihood of adverse effects occurring
Is smoke plum or alcohol exposure voluntary? under own control? known risks? common risks? immediate adverse effects? consequences reversible?
5. Alcohol but both can be or not be
6. Alcohol, but both can be or not be.
IS poisoning a growing problem?
What is the 3 step approach to risk prevention?
1. Hazrd Identification and analysis
2. Risk Assessment
3. Risk Management
T-F- inhalation exposure is easy to avoid?
4 key air pollutants?
CO, SOx, NOx, Ozone
Air pollution is a risk factor for what 2 things?
cardiac death and pulmonary conditions
How many US people live in areas with pollutant concentrations deemed unsafe?
What two air pollutants are asphyxiants?
What air pollutants are irritants?
SMOG-OZONE, aldehydes, particles, hydrocarbons
What are the 6 criteria pollutants?