Flashcards in Toxicology 2 Deck (78)
Review or memorize the 5 potential therapeutic uses of alcohol?
1. externally as a rub
2. injection into nerve plexi
3. improve appetite in elderly and to provide calories
4. for extraction and application of medical compounds from plants
5. beneficial side effects on CV stem and maybe on cancer
Why do some alcohols need to be distilled?
fermentation ends due to yeast dying in higher amounts of alcohol. Distillation increases alcohol content
Is absorption of alcohol from the GI tract fast or slow? what is the effect of food on this?
1. stomach and small intestine absorb pretty rapidly
2. food decreases rate of absorpton
What are the characteristics of distribution of alcohol in the body?
Fast distribution, volume is correlated to total body water.
Concentration in a tissue is proportional to water in the tissue
After absorption, where does all the alcohol go?
What is the blood alcohol concentration?
expressed as grams of ETOH per 100ml blood,
How much do you limit 1/2 drink from your body?
1/2/ drink/ hour
How much drinks results in .03 increase in BAC?
Where is the main place for alcohol secretion and metabolism?
the first step of ethanol metabolism is caused by what enzyme? what type of kinetics? rate? what does ethanol become?
1. alcohol dehydrogenase
2. 0 order kinetics
3. 6-8 grams /hr
Is cytochome P450 used in alcohol metabolism?
yes but smaller amount
what enzyme catalyzes the second step of alcohol metabolism? fast or slow?
1. acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
Is acetaldehyde harmful to the body?
- cross linking
-carcinogenic imino derivatives
does alcohol facilitate GABA activation?
inhibition- primary depressant effects
Does alcohol have direct effects on respiratory system?
No- until high levels, but it is indirect through the brainstem
What is the primary cause of acute alcohol lethality?
What does alcohol do to the CV system>??
1. vasodilation- hypothermia deaths
2. increases HDL and decrease LDL
does alacohol inhibit the anti-diuretic hormone?
can a high dose of alcohol stimulate appetite and a low dose depress appetite?
other way around
Liver toxicity due to changed lipid metabolism and nadh accumulation leads to what 3 main disease?
fatty liver, toxic hepatitis, cirrhosis
What is prominent feature of acute alcohol poisoning?
Acute alcohol poisoning affects gluconeogenesis and might cause what?
some malnourished patients with alcohol toxicity develop what?
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to appetite?
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to vitamin and nutrients?
With chronic alcohol abuse, do we become ketotic?
Yes, wernicke korsakoff syndrome due to Vit B1/thiamine deficiency
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens tour stomach?
ailments, ulcers, diarrhea
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to our skin?
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to sexual potency?
impotence, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia and testosterone drop