Toxicology 2 Flashcards Preview

4 Pharm Self > Toxicology 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Toxicology 2 Deck (78)
Loading flashcards...
1

Review or memorize the 5 potential therapeutic uses of alcohol?

1. externally as a rub
2. injection into nerve plexi
3. improve appetite in elderly and to provide calories
4. for extraction and application of medical compounds from plants
5. beneficial side effects on CV stem and maybe on cancer

2

Why do some alcohols need to be distilled?

fermentation ends due to yeast dying in higher amounts of alcohol. Distillation increases alcohol content

3

Is absorption of alcohol from the GI tract fast or slow? what is the effect of food on this?

1. stomach and small intestine absorb pretty rapidly
2. food decreases rate of absorpton

4

What are the characteristics of distribution of alcohol in the body?

Fast distribution, volume is correlated to total body water.
Concentration in a tissue is proportional to water in the tissue

5

After absorption, where does all the alcohol go?

liver

6

What is the blood alcohol concentration?

expressed as grams of ETOH per 100ml blood,

7

How much do you limit 1/2 drink from your body?

1/2/ drink/ hour

8

How much drinks results in .03 increase in BAC?

1 drink

9

Where is the main place for alcohol secretion and metabolism?

liver

10

the first step of ethanol metabolism is caused by what enzyme? what type of kinetics? rate? what does ethanol become?

1. alcohol dehydrogenase
2. 0 order kinetics
3. 6-8 grams /hr
4. acetaldehyde

11

Is cytochome P450 used in alcohol metabolism?

yes but smaller amount

12

what enzyme catalyzes the second step of alcohol metabolism? fast or slow?

1. acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
2. fast

13

Is acetaldehyde harmful to the body?

yes
- cross linking
-carcinogenic imino derivatives
-thial intermediate

14

does alcohol facilitate GABA activation?

inhibition- primary depressant effects

15

Does alcohol have direct effects on respiratory system?

No- until high levels, but it is indirect through the brainstem

16

What is the primary cause of acute alcohol lethality?

respiratory depression

17

What does alcohol do to the CV system>??

1. vasodilation- hypothermia deaths
2. increases HDL and decrease LDL

18

does alacohol inhibit the anti-diuretic hormone?

yes

19

can a high dose of alcohol stimulate appetite and a low dose depress appetite?

other way around

20

Liver toxicity due to changed lipid metabolism and nadh accumulation leads to what 3 main disease?

fatty liver, toxic hepatitis, cirrhosis

21

What is prominent feature of acute alcohol poisoning?

CNS symptoms

22

Acute alcohol poisoning affects gluconeogenesis and might cause what?

hypoglycemia

23

some malnourished patients with alcohol toxicity develop what?

alcoholic ketoacidosis

24

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to appetite?

lose it

25

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to vitamin and nutrients?

become deficient

26

With chronic alcohol abuse, do we become ketotic?

Yes, wernicke korsakoff syndrome due to Vit B1/thiamine deficiency

27

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens tour stomach?

ailments, ulcers, diarrhea

28

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to our skin?

increased problems

29

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to sexual potency?

impotence, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia and testosterone drop

30

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens tour heart?

cardiomyopathy