Flashcards in Toxicology 2 Deck (78):
Review or memorize the 5 potential therapeutic uses of alcohol?
1. externally as a rub
2. injection into nerve plexi
3. improve appetite in elderly and to provide calories
4. for extraction and application of medical compounds from plants
5. beneficial side effects on CV stem and maybe on cancer
Why do some alcohols need to be distilled?
fermentation ends due to yeast dying in higher amounts of alcohol. Distillation increases alcohol content
Is absorption of alcohol from the GI tract fast or slow? what is the effect of food on this?
1. stomach and small intestine absorb pretty rapidly
2. food decreases rate of absorpton
What are the characteristics of distribution of alcohol in the body?
Fast distribution, volume is correlated to total body water.
Concentration in a tissue is proportional to water in the tissue
After absorption, where does all the alcohol go?
What is the blood alcohol concentration?
expressed as grams of ETOH per 100ml blood,
How much do you limit 1/2 drink from your body?
1/2/ drink/ hour
How much drinks results in .03 increase in BAC?
Where is the main place for alcohol secretion and metabolism?
the first step of ethanol metabolism is caused by what enzyme? what type of kinetics? rate? what does ethanol become?
1. alcohol dehydrogenase
2. 0 order kinetics
3. 6-8 grams /hr
Is cytochome P450 used in alcohol metabolism?
yes but smaller amount
what enzyme catalyzes the second step of alcohol metabolism? fast or slow?
1. acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
Is acetaldehyde harmful to the body?
- cross linking
-carcinogenic imino derivatives
does alcohol facilitate GABA activation?
inhibition- primary depressant effects
Does alcohol have direct effects on respiratory system?
No- until high levels, but it is indirect through the brainstem
What is the primary cause of acute alcohol lethality?
What does alcohol do to the CV system>??
1. vasodilation- hypothermia deaths
2. increases HDL and decrease LDL
does alacohol inhibit the anti-diuretic hormone?
can a high dose of alcohol stimulate appetite and a low dose depress appetite?
other way around
Liver toxicity due to changed lipid metabolism and nadh accumulation leads to what 3 main disease?
fatty liver, toxic hepatitis, cirrhosis
What is prominent feature of acute alcohol poisoning?
Acute alcohol poisoning affects gluconeogenesis and might cause what?
some malnourished patients with alcohol toxicity develop what?
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to appetite?
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to vitamin and nutrients?
With chronic alcohol abuse, do we become ketotic?
Yes, wernicke korsakoff syndrome due to Vit B1/thiamine deficiency
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens tour stomach?
ailments, ulcers, diarrhea
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to our skin?
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to sexual potency?
impotence, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia and testosterone drop
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens tour heart?
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to coagulation?
defect-- decreased coagulation proteins
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to our CNS?
memory loss, dementia, cerebellar atrophy,
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to our nerves?
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens tour AST and GGTP, triglycerides?
They go up
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to glucose tolerance?
impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus (pancreatic injury)
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to plasma magnesium and phosphate?
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to plasma uric acid?
With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to plasma folate?
goes down, megaloblastic anemia
What are the 2 types of tolerances to chronic alcohol consumption?
metabolic and neuronal
Is fatty liver reversible?
yes from a good diet and strict abstinence
What are the major complications of liver cirrhosis?
1. portal hypertension (varicose and hemorrhoids)
2. salt and water retention (ascites, edema
What are the major problems of liver transplantation in alcohol abusers?
2. other organ problems
4. new liver endangered if not abstinence
What are the 3 multifactorial risks to fatty liver?
genes, environment, alcohol
What tells us we are alcoholic hepatitis?
only medium high AST levels for months
What happens to NAD and OAA in alcoholism?
concentration is decreased by EtOH oxidation--this might lead to the decreased F.A. oxidation and increased fatty liver
Acute intoxication reduces metabolizing activity?
does Long term alcohol use increase or decrease microsomal enzyme activity? which enzymes? What about when it finally reaches cirrhosis?
2. CYP2E, CYP3A
3.overall metabolism reduced
aspirin and Etoh leads to what?
Are effects of CNS depressants and vasodilators and anti-coagulants exaggerated with alcohol?
is there increased gastric uptake of penicillin with EtOh?
What are 5 things FAS children have?
smaller heads and brains
abnormal facial features
Alcoholism is a disease that includes what 4 symptoms?
loss of control
How many alcohol abusers are in the US? how much of the annual health expenditure? how many deaths?
What 3 races had the most alcoholics of persons greater than 11?
american indian> native hawaiian or islander>hispanic
What age group has the highest alcohol abusers?
18-25> 26-34> 35-49
When do seizures during alcohol withdrawal occur?
days 1-3 with minor symptoms
What are minor symptoms of alcohol withdrawal?
What are the major symptoms of alcohol withdrawal?
What is disulfiram?
aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor used to support alcoholism
What are pyrazoles?
alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor used to support alcoholism
What is naltrexone used for in alcoholism?
opioid receptor antagonist--> inhibits desire for alcohol.
Should we use anti-depressants to treat alcoholism?
What is a dangerous alcohol with therapeutic use, flammable, hydroxyl derivative, miscible with water CNS depressant?
What is a dangerous alcohol without therapeutic use, flammable, hydroxyl derivative, miscible with water CNS depressant?
What is the 2nd most freq ingested alcohol?
What are the kinetics of isopropanol?
rapid, metabolism to acetone, slow elimination in kidneys and lung (acetone breath)
How potent is isopropanol a CNS depressant as EtOH?
twice- >3 swallows by a child contact health care
Should we use EtOH as an antidote for isopropanol?
Where can we find methanol?
antifreeze, paint remover
Can methanol be absorbed through skin and lung exposure?
How is methanol metabolized?
hepatic--to formaldehyde and formic acid
how much of methanol is needed to cause blindness?
10 ml of 40%
What correlates best with lethality of methanol?
Is ethylene glycol bitter?
no it is sweet> sweet man's alcohol
[from antifreeze and coolant]
What is ethylene glycol metabolized to/
What does ethylene glycol do to kidneys?
leads to failure and crystals in renal tubules (where it is filtered and reabsorbed)
What is a major problem of ethylene glycol in the body?