Antioxidant Supplementation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antioxidant Supplementation Deck (55)
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1

What are the 4 classes of reactive species

1. Reactive Oxygen Species: Radicals
2. Reactive Oxygen Species: Non-Radicals
3. Reactive Nitrogen Species: Radicals
4. Reactive Nitrogen Species: Non-Radicals

2

Give an example of Reactive Oxygen Species: Radicals

a. Superoxide
b. Hydroxyl Groups

3

Give an example of Reactive Oxygen Species: Non-Radicals

a. Hydrogen Peroxide
b. Singlet oxygen

4

Give an example of Reactive Nitrogen Species: Radicals

a. Nitric oxide

5

Give an example of Reactive Nitrogen Species: Non-Radicals

a. Peroxynitrite

6

What do reactive species do to other compounds

Steal electrons

7

What are the opposites of ROS/RNS in the body

Anti-oxidants

8

Define peroxidation

a chain oxidative reaction causing the dysfunction of the phospholipid bilayer

9

What happens when LDL are oxidised

more atherogenic, and increasing likelihood of atherosclerosis, as they deposit cholesterol in the blood vessels more readily

10

What happens when ROS/RNS reduce bioavaliability

impairs blood vessel function, as NO binds to singlet oxygen forming Peroxynitrite (very damaging, causing peroxidation)

11

How do ROS/RNS damage proteins

carbonylation or nitrosylation

12

How does carbonylation or nitrosylation effect the body

impairs enzymatic function,
and altered function causes symptoms of ageing.

13

What response do ROS/RNS trigger that can lead to CVD, obesity and diabetes

Inflammatory response

14

Give 2 ways ROS/RNS can negatively impact sports performance

• Cell membranes become leaky- and enzymes etc can leave the cell e.g. creatine kinase
• Altered function of transporters, enzymes, and contractile proteins
• Reduced NO bioavailability, which decreases perfusion
• Inflammation leads to soreness, and pain as well as increased RPE

15

True or False: exercise produces greater levels of ROS/RNS

True

16

Why does exercise produce greater levels of ROS

NADPH Oxidase produces superoxide. Its activity is increased during exercise

17

Give 2 beneficial uses of ROS/RNS

• Vasodilation (alter blood pressure)
• Immune function- damage to pathogens e.g. the oxidative burst
• Cell communication

18

What are the two classes of endogenous antioxidants

-enzymatic
-non-enzymatic

19

Give 2 examples of enzymatic antioxidants

Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)
Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX)
Catalase (CAT)
Peroxiredoxin

20

Give 2 examples of non-enzymatic antioxidants

Uric Acid
Glutathione
Bilirubin
Thiols
Albumin

21

What are the 3 classes of nutritional antioxidants

Vitamins
Minerals
Phytochemicals

22

Give 2 examples of antioxidant vitamins

C
E
Carotene

23

Give 2 examples of antioxidant minerals

Copper
Zinc
Manganese
Selenium

24

Give 2 examples of antioxidant phytochemicals

Phenolic acids
Stilbenes
Flavonoids

25

True or false: Training results in increases in enzymatic antioxidants

True

26

Where specifically are enzymatic antioxidants found

cell mitochondria

27

Where specifically are non-enzymatic antioxidants found

Blood vessels

28

Catalase is the detoxifying enzyme for H202 resulting in what

H20 + 02

29

Iron is the detoxifying element for H202 resulting in what

OH

30

Give 2 indirect methods of measuring ROS/RNS

• Protein carbonyls and nitrotyrosine
• F2 isoprostanes- liver
• TBARS- lipids
• MDA- lipids