Flashcards in Nutrition for training Deck (30)
Give 2 ways exercise disturbs homeostasis
• Stores are depleted e.g. glycogen, as only so much is endogenously available
• Protein metabolism
• Muscle damaged
Explain why an induction of the insulin cascade is beneficial for performance
CHO drink/meal induces an insulin cascade, as the pancreas gives an insulin response. More glycogen in the body, means a longer time to exhaustion.
What intracellular adaptations occur when we exercise in a low glycogen state?
• Increased PDK4 (rate limiting step of CHO oxidation)
• Increased UCP3 (mitochondrial function)
• Increased LPL (Increases fat oxidation)
• Increased CPT1 (rate limiting step of fat oxidation)
• Increased PGC-1 (co-activator of energy metabolism pathways)
What is the protein which when induced by AMPK induces expression of genes for CHO and fat oxidation
Describe train low compete high reasoning
The glycogen loading effect- adapt better and drive better metabolic phenotype.
Which is more beneficial for adaptation- training once or twice a day
Why should we exercise after an overnight fast
Decreased liver CHO --> greater adaptation/resynthesis
Is sleep low/train low beneficial for endurance sports?
What sort of sport is sleep low/train low not advised for
Sports with repeated sprints
What could the negative effects of CHO restriction be
- poor training quality, immunosuppression, and muscle protein loss
What is creatine
Synthesised from the amino acids arginine and glycine
Which two organs synthesise creatine
Liver and Kidney
How much creatine a day do the liver and kidney produce?
What are the approximate resting muscle concentrations of creatine
Give 2 creatine rich foods
Herring, Beef, Salmon, Pork and Milk
??? + ADP + H+ --> ATP + Cr
Pcr + ADP + H+ --> ATP + Cr
??? + 3ADP + Pi --> 3ATP + 2Lactate + 2H+
Glycogen + 3ADP + Pi --> 3ATP + 2Lactate + 2H+
Pcr + ADP + H+ --> ATP + ???
Pcr + ADP + H+ --> ATP + Cr
Creatine replaces PCr stores. How is this beneficial
gives a longer time where ATP can be generated (via PCr resynthesis)
How does creatine effect H buffering
What type of enzymes does creatine activate
What is the loading dose of creatine
(20g/0.3g/kg) for 5 days
What is the maintenance dose for creatine
(2g or 0.03-0.07g/kg)
What are the side effects of creatine supplementation
• Rapid hypertrophy- water retention
o Changes osmolality so cells expand
• Increased anaerobic performance
• Increased muscle glycogen concentration
How are NSAIDs a training aid
By removing pain, you can train harder for longer
Which group of people have negative effects with NSAIDs
Young men- blocks MPS
What are the negative impacts of vitamin C and E for training
They can block training adaptation in some people, but not in others. There is no metabolic evidence they inhibit metabolism/training adaptation.
What are the negarive impacts of resveratrol for training
An antioxidant which blunts positive effects of exercise training in older people but has no effect in younger people.
What is a mimetic
gives equivalent exercise response