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Flashcards in Nutrition for training Deck (30)
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1

Give 2 ways exercise disturbs homeostasis

• Stores are depleted e.g. glycogen, as only so much is endogenously available
• Protein metabolism
• Muscle damaged

2

Explain why an induction of the insulin cascade is beneficial for performance

CHO drink/meal induces an insulin cascade, as the pancreas gives an insulin response. More glycogen in the body, means a longer time to exhaustion.

3

What intracellular adaptations occur when we exercise in a low glycogen state?

• Increased PDK4 (rate limiting step of CHO oxidation)
• Increased UCP3 (mitochondrial function)
• Increased LPL (Increases fat oxidation)
• Increased CPT1 (rate limiting step of fat oxidation)
• Increased PGC-1 (co-activator of energy metabolism pathways)

4

What is the protein which when induced by AMPK induces expression of genes for CHO and fat oxidation

PGC1a

5

Describe train low compete high reasoning

The glycogen loading effect- adapt better and drive better metabolic phenotype.

6

Which is more beneficial for adaptation- training once or twice a day

Twice

7

Why should we exercise after an overnight fast

Decreased liver CHO --> greater adaptation/resynthesis

8

Is sleep low/train low beneficial for endurance sports?

Yes

9

What sort of sport is sleep low/train low not advised for

Sports with repeated sprints

10

What could the negative effects of CHO restriction be

- poor training quality, immunosuppression, and muscle protein loss

11

What is creatine

Synthesised from the amino acids arginine and glycine

12

Which two organs synthesise creatine

Liver and Kidney

13

How much creatine a day do the liver and kidney produce?

~1 g/day

14

What are the approximate resting muscle concentrations of creatine

160 mmol.kg

15

Give 2 creatine rich foods

Herring, Beef, Salmon, Pork and Milk

16

??? + ADP + H+ --> ATP + Cr

Pcr + ADP + H+ --> ATP + Cr

17

??? + 3ADP + Pi --> 3ATP + 2Lactate + 2H+

Glycogen + 3ADP + Pi --> 3ATP + 2Lactate + 2H+

18

Pcr + ADP + H+ --> ATP + ???

Pcr + ADP + H+ --> ATP + Cr

19

Creatine replaces PCr stores. How is this beneficial

gives a longer time where ATP can be generated (via PCr resynthesis)

20

How does creatine effect H buffering

Improves/increases it

21

What type of enzymes does creatine activate

Glycolytic

22

What is the loading dose of creatine

(20g/0.3g/kg) for 5 days

23

What is the maintenance dose for creatine

(2g or 0.03-0.07g/kg)

24

What are the side effects of creatine supplementation

• Rapid hypertrophy- water retention
o Changes osmolality so cells expand
• Increased anaerobic performance
• Increased muscle glycogen concentration

25

How are NSAIDs a training aid

By removing pain, you can train harder for longer

26

Which group of people have negative effects with NSAIDs

Young men- blocks MPS

27

What are the negative impacts of vitamin C and E for training

They can block training adaptation in some people, but not in others. There is no metabolic evidence they inhibit metabolism/training adaptation.

28

What are the negarive impacts of resveratrol for training

An antioxidant which blunts positive effects of exercise training in older people but has no effect in younger people.

29

What is a mimetic

gives equivalent exercise response

30

Why may epicatechin be beneficial as a training aid

An exercise mimetic as it effects the same metabolic pathways as Ca2+ and AMPK.
Shown improved markers of muscle function