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Give 3 examples of reasons of athletes taking supplements

• Correction of deficiency
• Sponsorship
• Performance enhancing
• Convenience (e.g. tour de france to meet dietary requirements)
• Keep up with other competitors if it is perceived everyone else is taking them


Give 3 issues of PED legalisation

 Health risks
 Unfair advantage to those who don’t
 Coercion
 Drugs vs other performance enhancing technologies
 Effectiveness of drug testing
 Sportsmanship
 Role Models, for young athletes


What are the three categories of WADA prohibited drugs?

1. Prohibited always (in/out of competition)
2. Prohibited in competition
3. Prohibited in certain sports


Give 3 general supplementation issues

-Legality of the supplement


Give the 5 PED categories

1. Fuels
2. Nitrates
4. Stimulants
5. Antioxidants


Describe Group A supplements

well researched and have been shown to have true beneficial effects e.g. caffeine


Describe Group B supplements

some beneficial research, but it is ongoing e.g. Cherries


Describe Group C supplements

little or no evidence


Describe Group D supplements

may be on the banned list, or have a very high risk of contamination and should not be used


What are the target serum levels for vitamin D

~75 mmol/l


Give some examples of Vitamin D rich food/drink

cod liver oil, orange juice, oily fish or egg yolk


Describe the process of vitamin D absorption

The sun converts pre-cholecalciferol (and other precursors) in the skin, into Vitamin D3.
Vitamin D3 is then activated by a liver enzyme to form 25[OH]D, which either travels to the kidney for processing into 1α25[OH]2D


Close et al 2013 found that 37% of athletes were deficient in vitamin D? True or False



In which season is there a decline in vitamin D levels



What are consequences of vitamin D deficiency?

deficiency decreases calcium and phosphate absorption, and bone mineral density... leading to an increased risk of osteoporosis or fractures.
Muscle function- affects calcium kinetics (essential for contraction/strength of muscle), and myoblast differentiation (muscle regeneration).


How effective is vitamin D supplementation

It improves serum levels of vitamin D, and there was a greater increase in those already deficient. However, there was no effect on performance if not pre-deficient as muscle strength did not improve. However, supplementation improved 10m sprint time and vertical jump height if they were deficient to begin with, and did improve immune function


What are pre-biotics

o Can only be metabolised by gut bacteria, and not human host


What are syn-biotics

o Combination of pre and probiotics


What are pro-biotics

o Live bacteria cultures


Give 3 beneficial effects of pro-biotics

-enhancement of the epithelial barrier
2. increased adhesion to intestinal mucosa
3. inhibition of pathogen adhesion
4. competitive exclusion of pathogenic micro-organisms
5. production of anti-microorganism substances
6. modulation of the immune system