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Flashcards in Intro Lecture Deck (20)
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1

Give 3 examples of reasons of athletes taking supplements

• Correction of deficiency
• Sponsorship
• Performance enhancing
• Convenience (e.g. tour de france to meet dietary requirements)
• Keep up with other competitors if it is perceived everyone else is taking them

2

Give 3 issues of PED legalisation

 Health risks
 Unfair advantage to those who don’t
 Coercion
 Drugs vs other performance enhancing technologies
 Effectiveness of drug testing
 Sportsmanship
 Role Models, for young athletes

3

What are the three categories of WADA prohibited drugs?

1. Prohibited always (in/out of competition)
2. Prohibited in competition
3. Prohibited in certain sports

4

Give 3 general supplementation issues

-Legality of the supplement
-Safety
-Purity

5

Give the 5 PED categories

1. Fuels
2. Nitrates
3.Buffers
4. Stimulants
5. Antioxidants

6

Describe Group A supplements

well researched and have been shown to have true beneficial effects e.g. caffeine

7

Describe Group B supplements

some beneficial research, but it is ongoing e.g. Cherries

8

Describe Group C supplements

little or no evidence

9

Describe Group D supplements

may be on the banned list, or have a very high risk of contamination and should not be used

10

What are the target serum levels for vitamin D

~75 mmol/l

11

Give some examples of Vitamin D rich food/drink

cod liver oil, orange juice, oily fish or egg yolk

12

Describe the process of vitamin D absorption

The sun converts pre-cholecalciferol (and other precursors) in the skin, into Vitamin D3.
Vitamin D3 is then activated by a liver enzyme to form 25[OH]D, which either travels to the kidney for processing into 1α25[OH]2D

13

Close et al 2013 found that 37% of athletes were deficient in vitamin D? True or False

True

14

In which season is there a decline in vitamin D levels

Winter

15

What are consequences of vitamin D deficiency?

deficiency decreases calcium and phosphate absorption, and bone mineral density... leading to an increased risk of osteoporosis or fractures.
Muscle function- affects calcium kinetics (essential for contraction/strength of muscle), and myoblast differentiation (muscle regeneration).

16

How effective is vitamin D supplementation

It improves serum levels of vitamin D, and there was a greater increase in those already deficient. However, there was no effect on performance if not pre-deficient as muscle strength did not improve. However, supplementation improved 10m sprint time and vertical jump height if they were deficient to begin with, and did improve immune function

17

What are pre-biotics

o Can only be metabolised by gut bacteria, and not human host

18

What are syn-biotics

o Combination of pre and probiotics

19

What are pro-biotics

o Live bacteria cultures

20

Give 3 beneficial effects of pro-biotics

-enhancement of the epithelial barrier
2. increased adhesion to intestinal mucosa
3. inhibition of pathogen adhesion
4. competitive exclusion of pathogenic micro-organisms
5. production of anti-microorganism substances
6. modulation of the immune system