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What book was printed in 1460? Why is it significant?

The bible was printed by Johannes Gutenberg. It took place in Mainz Germany. This was the first use of the printing press.


What did Franchio Gaffurio do?

Gaffurio wrote the first music text to be published in a printing press. It was called Theoricum Opus Musice Discipline. It was in 1480 AD in the Italian city of Naples.


Theorica Musice

Second book by Gaffurio. Written in Milan. Edited by dr kreyszig. 70% plagiarized, as has no bibliography. Not necessarily just a music text. One couldn't just study music back then, had to study everything. this was written in 1492.


Who was boethius?

Wrote de institutione arithmetica and de institutione musica in the context of the auctoritas (the authority). This was the accepted authority on all matters of theory. it adresses music, philosophy, logic, theology, mathematical arts, intervals, consonances, scales, tuning. 

he catagorises music into three categories- musica mundana, musica human, and musica instrumentalis. 


First print of music

The first print was made in 1501 in Venice. The man's name was petrucci. The piece was called Odhecaton A.


Who was enheduanna

(S)he was the first recorded composer in history. She wrote pieces to the moon God and goddess. Only texts on cuneiform tablets remain.



A photo reproduction of a work, painting, or writing. Because it's a photo, it's an exact replica of the original.



The idea that music could effect ones ethical character or ways of behaving.



The musical unification of parts into the orderly whole. AKA the relationship between the pitches.


Diastematic or intervallic movement

In which the voice moved between sustained pitches separated by discrete intervals.



The only signed print copy of a piece.



The study of paintings for performance practice.



The study instruments including the voice.


Transposition in context of ancient music

The definition of transposition has not changed. Taking a scale/ segment and reproducing it higher or lower without changing the succession of whole and half steps.



The Greek word for rhythm.


what does Opera onmia mean?

all the works of. we learned this in the context of marsilio Fichino's "opera omnia of plato"


what's the difference between treatises and encyclopaedic writings?

encyclopaedic writings often had more information than a monograph. this is what Gaffurio tried to write.


who did Gaffurio rely on to write Theorica musice?

greek treatises in latin translations, de institutiones arithmetica and musica of boethuis, the writings of the fathers of church including St. Augustine and St. Ambrose. Also, classical poets such as Horace, Livy, Ovid, and Virgil, Latin Music theory such as Guido of Arezzo's Micrologis, and other books that were in Gaffurio's personal library.



the disciplines of grammar, rhetoric, and dialect. This is one of two artes liberales. this is one of the topics covered in Theorica musice.



arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy. these are the second of the two catagories of artes liberales. This is one of four topics covered in Theorica Musice.


artes mechanicae

mechanics and medicine (this includes the basis of music therapy). This was the third of four topics covered in Theorica Musice


studia humanitatis

law and theology. this is the fourth topic covered in Theorica Musice.


what evidence exists for the earliest music?

-bone flutes from the stone age (36000 BCE) -iconographic evidence such as paleolithic paintings of playing instruments, pictures of pottery flutes, rattles and drums from the neolithic era, turkish wall paintings depicting drummers performing for dancers. -from 3200 BCE onward have bells, cymbals, rattles, horns. iconographic evidence from here of plucked instruments.


What evidence of music remains from the sumerians and babylonians?

-a musical repertory of wedding songs, funeral laments, military music for cermonies, and epics with instrumental accompaniment. -word lists included instruments, procedures for tuning, performer and performing techniques. - babylonians had a seven note diatonic scale with close affinity to the Greek systema teleion. -babylonians had writings on music


what was included in the Babylonian writings of music?

tuning of strings, concept of intervals, improvising, the diatonic scales, performance techniques, genres such as love songs, laments, hymns.


what were the three Greek instruments?

the aulos: a two stemmed reeded instrument, the lyre: a seven stringed instrument operated with a plectrum or pick which was used at various festivities, and the kithara: a large lyre.


The Pythian games

a festival of vocal and instrumental music since the 5th century BCE. this often featured the aulos and lyre.


what instrument was used by the Greek god Apollo?

the lyre.


did the greeks notate music or have an oral tradition?

they had both. often pieces were memorized or improvised despite having a fully developed notation system from the 4th centruy BCE onwards.


summarize Greek musical thought

based on philosophical memory on the nature of music and effects/ proper use of music theory as written by Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Aristides Quintilianus.