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Flashcards in Appendix Deck (66):
1

when did modern management begin

late 19th century

2

scientific management; organizations were seeking

ways to better satisfy customer needs

3

scientific management; what was changing the way goods were produced

machinery

4

scientific management; managers had to increase

efficiency of the worker-task mix

5

who "discovered" job specializaiton

adam smith

6

craft

each worker did all steps

7

factory

each worker specialized in one step

8

factory method

smith found that it had much higher productivity

9

division of labor

breaking down the total job

10

who defined scientific management

Frederick taylor, late 1800's

11

scientific study

the systematic study of the relationships between people and tasks to redesign the work for higher efficiency

12

Four principles to increase efficiency

1. study the way the job is performed now and determine new ways to do it
2. codify the new method into rules
3. select workers whose skills match the rules set
4. establish a fair level of performance and pay for higher performance

13

problems of scientific management

managers often only implemented the increased output side of taylor's plan

14

workers would purposely

"under-perform"

15

how did management respond to under performance

increased use of machines

16

Frank and Lilian Gilbreth

time and motion studies

17

time and motion studies

1. break down each action into components
2. find better ways to perform it
3. reorganize each action to be more efficient

18

administrative management

seeks to create an organization that leads to both efficiency and effectiveness

19

max water developed

bureaucracy

20

bureaucracy

a formal system of organization and administration to ensure effectiveness and efficiency

21

five key points of bureaucracy

1. authority
2. positions
3. position duties are clearly identified
4. lines of authority
5. rules, standard operating procedures, and norms

22

authority

is the power to hold people accountable for their actions

23

positions

in the firm should be held based on performance not social contracts

24

positons duties

are clearly identified. people should know whats expected

25

lines of authority

should be clearly identified. workers know who to report to

26

rules, SOPs and norms

used to determine how the firm operates

27

who developed 14 principles

Henri Fayol

28

division of labor

allows for job specialization

29

authority and responsibility

fayol included both formal and informal authority resulting from special expertise

30

unity of command

employees should have only one boss

31

line of authority

a clear chain from top to bottle of the firm

32

centralization

the degree to which authority rests at the very top

33

unity of direction

one plan of action to guide the organization

34

equity

treat all employees fairly in justice and respect

35

order

each employee is put where they have the most value

36

initiative

encourage innovation (balance order with innovation)

37

discipline

obedient, applied, respectful employees needed

38

remuneration of personnel

the payment system contributes to success

39

stability of tenure

long term employment is important

40

general interest over individual interest

the organization takes precedence over the individual

41

esprit de corps

share enthusiasm or devotion to the organization

42

behavioral management

focus on the way a manager should personally manage to motivate employees for productivity

43

mary parter follett

an influential leader in early managerial theory

44

what did mary parter follett suggest

workers help in analyzing their jobs for improvements

45

the worker knows

the best way to improve the job

46

hawthorne effect

workers productivity was affected by the attention they received

47

who proposed theory x and y

douglas mcgregor

48

theory x

assumes the average worker is lazy, dislikes work and will do as little as possible

49

theory y

assumes the workers are not lazy, want to do a good job and the job itself will determine if the worker likes the work

50

quantitative management

utilizes linear programming, modeling, simulation systems

51

operations management

techniques to analyze all aspects of the production system

52

total quality management

focuses on improved quality

53

management information systems

provides information about the organization

54

organization environment system

considers relationships inside and outside the organization

55

systems theory

considers the impact of three stages

56

input

acquire external resources

57

conversion

inputs are processed into goods and services

58

output

finished goods are released into the eternal environment

59

an organic open system interacts with

both environments. a closed system is self contained

60

closed systems often undergo

entropy and lose the ability to control itself, and fails

61

synergy

performance gains of the whole surpass the components

62

contingency theory

assumes there is no one best way to manage

63

what impacts the organization

the environment

64

managers must be

flexible to react to environmental changes

65

mechanistic

authority is centralized at the tip

66

organic

authority is decentralized through employees