Flashcards in Applied Behaviour Analysis and Behaviour Therapy Deck (16):
What type of clients would be appropriate for Applied Behaviour Analysis and Behaviour Therapy?
1. Any kind of behaviour change with children. (Conduct, ADHD, Toilet Training, Learning/Studying/ cooperating with peers, household chores, tantrums
2. Most fears and phobia's
3. Some couple issues where beh change is desired (shared household choes and parenting, procrastination, sex therapy, and communication)
Discriminative Stimuli produces operant behaviour which products reinforcers (positive or negative) and punishments.
What is operant behaviour?
any event in the clients repertoire of activity - ie ) a startle after a loud noice
What is Discriminitive Stimuli?
any temporally contiguous phenomenae that precede the operant behavioru in the immediate environment. flash of thunder before the boom.
What is negative reinforcement?
any event following an operant behaviour which provides relief from, or prevents pain or discomfort.
What is punishment?
the operant behaviour is followed by an aversive event.
What is positive reinforcement?
any neutral or pleasurable event following an operant behaviour that increases the frequency and/or intensity of the operant behaviour.
What is an example?
A girl who was embarrassed by mocking when in a public speaking situation and now even the thought of speaking makes them blush as she feels anxious? Many fears develop from an association to a stimuli followed by a punishment.
Describe the application of differential reinforcement for successive approximation? also known as shaping
Provide a reinforcement only when the child gets successfully closer to the target behaviour. You seek approximations of the goal behaviour and ignore or punish those which are not approximations of the target behaviour.
Once you have the salient reinforce you must apply it with reasonable frequency. You can punish by removing the opportunity to get the reinforcement ie) time out
What is the concept of chaining?
It is where the end of one behaviour becomes the discriminative stimulus for the start of the next behaviour. You can use it get kids to memorize stuff. You start with the last beh in the chain and then provide positive reinforcement and then coach the start of the second to last beh in the chain and have it end at the start of the last beh. You continue until you have the whole chain and when performed get a single reinforcement at the end.
How do you extinguish a negative beh?
If you want to extinguish a negative or addictive chain then you have to do it in reverse all the way back to include the discriminitive stimuli for the operant behaviour you are trying to extinguish.
How do people social learn?
Have someone else model a beh and have the client observe both the beh and the consequences.
How can clients Self-Reinforce themselves?
Treats, gifts, pleasant events when they achieve a goal.
Miller and Dollards concept of Approach-Avoidance Conflicts
The two components of an approach-Avoidance conflicts are
1. Approach Gradient and
2. aAvoidance gradient
What does the approach avoidance conflict do?
It see saws and rolls back and forth