Which muscles elevate the eyelids?
Levator palprabrae superioris
What are some causes of cataracts?
Drugs - steroids, amiodarone
Systemic disease - DM
Occular diseases - uveitis, myopia
What is the most common cause of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy?
Diabetic macular oedema
What causes vitreous haemorrhage?
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy
What is the most common cause of visual loss?
How do you perform a retinal massage?
Place pressure with finger on orbit firmly (until pain occurs) and release after 5-15s for 15mins
How can you treat raised IOP?
Osmotic - manittol
Lazer the iris
What is a cause of acute loss of vision and pain?
What's a cause of acute glaucoma?
What can you do in a case of central arterial occlusion?
Which side of the visual field is the blind spot on?
What is a scotoma?
A blind spot
What is the central visual axis?
Line that transects the lens and meets the fovea
How do cataracts present?
Progressive vision loss
Loss of colour acuity
What pathological process causes wet macula degeneration?
What is RBCs in the anterior chamber called?
What is the ICE-TEST for? What does it involve?
Ice the eye and look for improvement of ptosis
What is Keratoconus?
Progressive thinning, weakness, and protrusion of the cornea
What is papilloedema?
Swelling of the optic disc
What are two causes of hyphema?
What is Fuch's Endothelial Dystrophy?
Swelling of the corneal epithelium due to failure of fluid drainage
What can cause diffuse intraretinal haemorrhage?
Central retinal vein occlusion
How do you treat wet macular degeneration?
What causes central retinal vein occlusion?
Do you get a RAPD with a central artery occlusion?
What causes flash of light (photopsia)?
Retinal traction/detachment (transient)
What is endophthalmitis?
Injury to multiple structures in the eye
What is the mechanism of diabetic macular oedema?
Oedema into the retina with lipids left behind
What is light saturation?
The appearance of a constant source of light in one eye compared to the other
What causes a cherry red spot?
Central retinal artery occlusion