What types of clavicle fractures are likely to be operated on?
Distal one third
What are the Gustilo and Anderson classification for?
Open fracture severity
What are the common fractures at the elbow in kids?
Pulseless supracondylar fracture
In what position is a pulseless subcondylar fracture fixed?
Extension at elbow
What is a galeazzi fracture?
Shaft of radius and dislocation of distal radioulnar joint
What are the 4 steps to managing a fracture?
Initial stabilisation - assessment, analgesia, prevent complications (reduction, splint, treat wound)
What are the Ottawa ankle rules? What are they for?
Tenderness over 6cm of the lower posterior border of the tibia, fibula or malleoli
Tenderness base of the 5th metatarsal
Tenderness of the navicular
Unable to fully weight bear
To determine whether an X-ray is required for an ankle injury
What is the problem with displaced #NOF?
They have a higher rate of avascular necrosis
What is a Colles fracture? When does it commonly occur?
Fracture of distal radius and ulna
Secondary to a FOSH
What is a Barton's fracture?
# of distal radius
What is a Weber fracture?
Fracture of the lateral malleolus of the fibula
How do you communicate the details of a fracture?
Mechanism of injury
Soft tissue damage
What are some clinical signs that are useful in assessing a pulseless subcondylar fracture?
What are the 3 rules for looking for elbow fractures
Look for fat pad posteriorly and anteriorly - indicative of damage
line through the Radial head points to the capitellum
Anterior humeral line dissects the centre of capitellum
What is a Bowers fracture?
# of 5th metacarpal
How do you test the function of the radial, median and ulnar nerve?
Radial - "thumbs up"
Median - "ok sign"
Ulnar - "make a star"
What is the rule of 2's of xray?
What is the difficulty with humoral neck fractures?
The rotator cuff muscles can displacement the bone
What are the rules for fracture healing times?
An UL fracture in kids takes 3-4 weeks to heal
LL limb fractures take double the time to heal
Adults take double the time to heal cf to kids
What is a Monteggia fracture?
Dislocation of the proximal radioulnar joint in association with a fracture
What is the difference between a subluxation and dislocation?
A subluxation is a partial dislocation
A dislocation is complete disruption of the joint
What is a Biers' block?
Use of a tourniquet to occlude outflow of the forearm and inject a large of ligocaine to anaesthetise the forearm
In what planes does displacement occur?
Linear and rotational in the coronal and sagittal plane
What is the immediate management of an open fracture?
Wash with copious amounts of saline
IV Abx and tetanus
What types of #NOFs are there?
- Basicervical - base of femoral neck