Approaches (Unit 2) Flashcards Preview

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1

KEY STUDY: Pavlov (1927)
What was it?

Using Classical Conditioning to see if a dog's salivation can be conditioned:

UCS (FOOD) - UCR (SALIVATION)

UCS (FOOD) + NS (BELL) - UCR (SALIVATION)

CS (BELL) - CR (SALIVATION)

2

KEY STUDY: Pavlov (1927)
What did he find?

-The tone and pitch of the bell doesn't make a difference
-UCS (FOOD) and NS (BELL) must be presented at the same time to be effective
-Extinction; The bell and salivation are not permanently linked
-Spontaneous recovery; following extinction, the dog learns to associate the bell again quicker than before

3

Define 'positive reinforcement'

Encouraging behaviour by adding something desirable (e.g. awarding someone chocolate)

4

Define 'negative reinforcement'

Encouraging behaviour by removing something undesirable (e.g. removing yourself from a phobic object/situation)

5

Define 'positive punishment'

Discouraging behaviour by adding something undesirable (e.g. a penalty of some description)

6

Define 'negative punishment'

Discouraging behaviour by removing something desirable (e.g. taking a teenager's phone from them)

7

KEY STUDY: Skinner (1948)
What was it and what did he find?

A rat would be placed in box and presented with a lever, the rat would eventually inadvertently press the lever. This would then dispense food into the box. Eventually the rat would learn to press this lever when it needed food.

8

Evaluation of the Behaviourist Approach in psychology (pros)

-Principles of classical conditioning have led to treatment of phobias, known as Systematic Desensitisation (associating phobias with relaxation instead of fear)
-Scientific methods to support the theories, conducted in controlled environments

9

Evaluation of the Behaviourist Approach in psychology (cons)

-Simplistic; behaviourists ignore the role of thoughts in our behaviour although most psychologists acknowledge that thoughts play a part in our behaviour
-Both Skinner and Pavlov conducted experiments on animals, however it may be the case that human learning is more complicated

10

Define 'modelling'

Learning a particular behaviour by watching others

11

Define 'imitation'

Observing a particular behaviour and copying it

12

Define 'identification'

Identifying yourself as similar to a role model and wishing to be them/like them

13

Define 'vicarious reinforcement'

Observing the consequences of another's behaviour and then imitating them

14

Define 'mediation processes'

The cognitive process of observing behaviour and then deciding to imitate it

15

KEY STUDY: Bandura et al (1961)
What was it?

1. A group of children were involved, half witnessed a video of an adult abusing a Bobo Doll and the other half saw an adult acting calmly
2. The children were then introduced to some toys but told they weren't allowed to play with them
3. Children were left with the doll and observed for 20 minutes

16

KEY STUDY: Bandura et al (1961)
What did they find?

-Children who witnessed aggressive adults were far more aggressive
-Boys acted more aggressive than girls
-Greater level of imitation if the child and adult were of the same sex

17

Evaluation of the Social Learning Theory approach in psychology (pros)

-Proves the impact of models as Bandura et al. found those who saw adults being violent to a Bobo Doll would do the same
-Gender related findings; Bandura et al. found a greater rate of imitation if the model was of the same sex

18

Evaluation of the Social Learning Theory approach in psychology (cons)

-Bandura et al.; The purpose of a Bobo Doll could be said to be violence, therefore the results aren't entirely valid
-Bandura et al.; children being told they can't play with the toys could upset them and potentially damage their relationships with adults

19

Define 'schema'

A collection of ideas about a thing, person or situation which then helps you to understand and predict the world around you

20

KEY STUDY: Brewer and Treyens (1981)
What was it and what did they find?

Procedure:
-Participants were left in a room which they believed to be the experimenter's office
-After 30-50 seconds they were removed from the 'office' and tested on the contents of the room

Findings:
-Most remembered the schematic objects
-Many recalled items not in the schema
-Many recalled items that were not in the room

21

Outline the Information Processing Model

Input; sense experience encoded into memory
-
Processing; decision making
-
Output; the behavioural response

22

List five different types of Brain Scans

EEG, CT, PET, MRI, fMRI

23

What do PET and fMRI scans look at?

PET (Positron Emission Tomography)
-Looks at structure and functioning of the brain
-Highlights active parts of the brain

fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
-Looks at blood flow and measures brain activity
-Very detailed, gives a rapid picture

24

Give at least one example of cognitive neuroscientific research

Research has found that:
-Prefrontal cortex dictates guilt
-Maguire; Taxi drivers' brains change and expand as they begin to learn their surroundings

25

Define 'heredity'

Obtaining genetics from your ancestors

26

Define 'genotype' and 'phenotype'

Genotype: Genetic attributes
Phenotype: Physical attributes

27

What's the difference between MZ and DZ twins?

MZ: Identical twins
DZ: Non-identical twins

28

Define 'concordance rate'

The probability that a pair of individuals will both have the same characteristic (Genotypes are 100% with MZ twins)

29

Outline what is meant by the Endocrine System

A collection of glands which produce hormones released from the endocrine glands that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue formation, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, mood, etc...

30

Outline what is meant by the Central Nervous System

Made up of the brain and spinal chord, and is key in transferring messages to and from the environment you're in. The spine is the centre for physiology and the brain is centre for behaviour